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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 8: Rate of irrigant exchange. An experimental setup: The canal in the block is filled with green liquid and the SAF is operated in the canal with an in-and-out pecking motion, at 5000 vibrations per min. At a given time point, a red liquid is injected into the irrigation tube. The time until the green liquid in the apical part (b) turns completely red (c) is measured. The red liquid represents fresh, fully active sodium hypochlorite. The time until full exchange of the irrigant occurred in the apical part was 30 s. During the recommended operation time of 4 min, the irrigant is fully replaced in the apical part of the canal 8 times

Figure 8: Rate of irrigant exchange. An experimental setup: The canal in the block is filled with green liquid and the SAF is operated in the canal with an in-and-out pecking motion, at 5000 vibrations per min. At a given time point, a red liquid is injected into the irrigation tube. The time until the green liquid in the apical part (b) turns completely red (c) is measured. The red liquid represents fresh, fully active sodium hypochlorite. The time until full exchange of the irrigant occurred in the apical part was 30 s. During the recommended operation time of 4 min, the irrigant is fully replaced in the apical part of the canal 8 times