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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 13: The illusion of evaluating root canal instrumentation and filling by 2D periapical radiographs. (a-c) A long-oval root canal that was instrumented using rotary files. Red: Before; yellow: After. (a) A cross-section, 5 mm from the apex. Note the round preparation and the un-instrumented "fin". (b) Buccal view of the same root canal: This preparation, when obturated, is likely to produce a nice periapical radiograph. (c) Mesial view of the same root revealing the extent of the un-instrumented "fin". (d and e) A clinical case (courtesy of Dr. Amir Weisman, Tel Aviv). (d) Left maxillary second premolar with apparently adequate preparation and obturation. The case failed clinically. Apical surgery (sectioning along the dotted line) revealed the reason for failure

Figure 13: The illusion of evaluating root canal instrumentation and filling by 2D periapical radiographs. (a-c) A long-oval root canal that was instrumented using rotary files. Red: Before; yellow: After. (a) A cross-section, 5 mm from the apex. Note the round preparation and the un-instrumented