Journal of Conservative Dentistry
Home About us Editorial Board Instructions Submission Subscribe Advertise Contact e-Alerts Login 
Users Online: 1019
Print this page  Email this page Bookmark this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 

 
Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 265-270
A confocal laser scanning microscopic evaluation of nonthermal atmospheric plasma on the dentinal tubule penetration of bioceramic and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Clinical Practitioner, Suraksha Dental Clinic, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission09-Jan-2023
Date of Decision27-Jan-2023
Date of Acceptance30-Jan-2023
Date of Web Publication16-May-2023
 

   Abstract 

Aim: Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), the current study assessed the impact of nonthermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) on the dentinal tubule penetration of bioceramic and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers (CLSM).
Materials and Methods: Forty human mandibular premolar teeth with a single root that had just undergone extraction were chosen and biomechanical preparation of root canals was done with ProTaper Gold rotary Nickel-titanium instruments. Samples were divided into four groups (n = 10). Group 1: Bioceramic sealer (BioRoot RCS); Group 2: Epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) without application of NTAP; Group 3: Bioceramic sealer (BioRoot RCS); and Group 4: Epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) with the application of NTAP for 30 s. In Groups 3 and 4, all of the samples underwent obturation with the appropriate sealers following NTAP application. For determination of the sealer's dentinal tubule penetration values, slices with a thickness of 2 mm were taken from the middle third of sample's root and examined using CLSM. The acquired data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and the Post hoc Tukey's test. The cutoff for statistical significance was P < 0.05.
Results: In comparison to other groups, the maximum sealer penetration values into dentinal tubules were significantly higher in Group 3 for Bioceramic sealer with NTAP application and Group 4 for Epoxy resin-based sealer with NTAP application.
Conclusion: NTAP application increased the dentinal tubule penetration of bioceramic and epoxy resin-based sealers in comparison to groups without NTAP application.

Keywords: Bioceramic sealer; confocal laser scanning microscopy; dentinal tubule penetration; nonthermal atmospheric plasma

How to cite this article:
Garlapati R, Gali PK, Bolla N, Guptha Anila BS, Vemuri S, Naidu BP. A confocal laser scanning microscopic evaluation of nonthermal atmospheric plasma on the dentinal tubule penetration of bioceramic and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. J Conserv Dent 2023;26:265-70

How to cite this URL:
Garlapati R, Gali PK, Bolla N, Guptha Anila BS, Vemuri S, Naidu BP. A confocal laser scanning microscopic evaluation of nonthermal atmospheric plasma on the dentinal tubule penetration of bioceramic and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2023 [cited 2023 Dec 8];26:265-70. Available from: https://www.jcd.org.in/text.asp?2023/26/3/265/376903

   Introduction Top


The success of endodontic therapy is influenced by a thorough root canal debridement, elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, using an inert root canal filler substance in the root canal that blocks the entry of microorganisms which in turn provides a fluid-tight seal.[1] The core obturation material and root canal sealers provide a seal that is fluid-tight inside the root canal during obturation. Root canal sealers fill the irregularities, dead spaces, and prevent the gap formed between the core materials and the dentinal walls through micromechanical retention or frictional resistance which is favorable in sustaining the unity of the sealer-dentin interface.[2]

Based on their chemical composition, many varieties of commercial root canal sealers are available. A sealer made with epoxy resin is AH plus Sealer (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Due to its better physical properties, good adhesion to root dentin, less solubility, apical sealing ability, and antimicrobial action, it is broadly used for root canal filling. Due to its increased ability to penetrate the root canal's minute abnormalities and its extended setting time, AH Plus exhibits an increase in the mechanical interlocking of the sealer with root dentin. Balguerie et al. suggested that AH Plus sealer showed better adaptation to root canal wall, peritubular dentin, and deeper dentinal tubular penetration.[3] A more recent bioceramic-based sealer is Bioroot RCS (Septodont, France). It has good sealing ability as a repair material, showed improved quality of obturation of root canal, more biocompatible, less toxic, low solubility, and good radiopacity. Due to its self-adhesive properties, Bioroot RCS demonstrated a higher bond strength as compared to AH Plus, MTA Fillapex, and Sealapex, according to Dayanand Chole et al.[4]

The performance of root canal sealers is evaluated by their penetration into the root dentin. Sealer selection depends on two important aspects, i.e., penetration and adhesion. Previous research suggested that the type of root canal sealer and pretreatment of root canal walls affects the penetration and bond strength of sealer.[5],[6] Physical and chemical characteristics, including those of surface tension, viscosity, solubility, and particle size have an impact on the consistency and depth of a material's dentinal tubule penetration, according to Mamootil and Messer.[7]

There are various methods of improving the sealer penetration and their adhesion; nonthermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) application is one of the methods Du et al. and Pan et al., in their analysis examined the feasibility of treating root canals contaminated biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis using NTAP and mentioned that NTAP was effective in disinfection of the root canals with E. faecalis biofilms. Thus, NTAP can be an effective and efficient adjunct to standard endodontic antimicrobial treatment.[8],[9] NTAP application reduces the contact angle, increases the surface wettability, and improves the surface energy of the materials thus increasing the bonding capability of the plasma-treated surfaces. NTAP application improves the hydrophilic property of dentinal tubules which helps in deeper root canal sealers penetration.[10]

Various microscopy techniques are available for the evaluation of the depth of root canal sealer penetration. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was superior in providing thorough details regarding the presence of sealer and its distribution across the dentinal tubules.[11] In order to acquire and process images, CLSM uses a system that combines physical-chemical principles, optical microscopy, and computing resources. The excitation of fluorophores, which can permeate through enamel, dentin, and biofilms, was encouraged by the use of the laser source. This allowed for the detection of their interior structures and the formation of multiple two-dimensional pictures.[12]

Fewer studies have examined the impact of NTAP on the penetration of bioceramic and epoxy resin-based sealers into dentinal tubules. Current confocal laser scanning microscope investigation therefore assessed and compared the impact of NTAP application on the penetration of bioceramic and epoxy resin-based sealers into root dentin.


   Materials and Methods Top


Sample preparation

Forty human-extracted single-rooted mandibular premolars (n = 40) were chosen. Crowns were decoronated with a low-speed handpiece below the cementoenamel junction, standardizing all root lengths to 15 mm. Using #10 K-file (Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland), the root canal's patency was achieved and the working length was determined 1 mm short of the apex.

Biomechanical preparation was done using ProTaper Gold (Dentsply Sirona, USA) nickel–titanium rotary instruments. Each time a file is changed, to eliminate the smear layer left behind from instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with 2 ml of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (Prime Dental Products, India) and with 2 ml of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (MD-Cleanser, Korea). Finally, 5 ml of distilled water was used to flush the canals, and paper points were used to dry them. Forty samples (n = 40) were divided each contained ten samples (n = 10), as follows:

  • Group 1: Bioceramic sealer (BioRoot RCS) without application of NTAP
  • Group 2: Epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) without application of NTAP
  • Group 3: Bioceramic sealer (BioRoot RCS) with application of NTAP
  • Group 4: Epoxy resin based-sealer (AH Plus) with application of NTAP.


Nonthermal atmospheric plasma application

After biomechanical preparation, samples in Groups 3 and 4 were given NTAP treatment. A glass reactor with a 30 cm length and 5 cm diameter was employed for the NTAP application. Using a mechanical pump, the glass reactor is evacuated to pressures under 2 Pa. The glass reactor was fueled with gas and inflated to a pressure of 10 Pa. Helium-argon gas was used to treat all samples at 60 watts for 30 s and the length of the plasma jet maintained was almost about 15 mm. The sample and the plasma jet's tip's distance during the procedure was about approximately 5 mm. NTAP is dispersed as a plasma jet at a greater flow rate of 5 L/min [Figure 1].[13],[14] NTAP is a partially ionized gas at room temperature. Even if NTAP is applied at the canal orifice, the depth of NTAP penetration into the root dentin may be due to the highly energetic particles bombarding plasma-treated surfaces, which cause the energy of these species to be transferred to the solid surfaces of the root dentin.
Figure 1: Nonthermal atmospheric plasma application

Click here to view


By using Rhodamine B (Sigma-Aldrich, USA), each sealer was fluorescently labeled at about 0.1 w/w ratio for analysis in confocal laser scanning microscope. In accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer, both sealers were manipulated. Following NTAP application, all samples in the control and experimental groups were obturated using the cold lateral compaction technique with the respective sealer and gutta-percha points (Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland). For 1 week, all of the samples were kept at 37°C with 100% humidity. The roots from each sample were mounted on self-curing acrylic resin cylinders and a hard tissue microtome (SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattakulathur) was used to produce 2 mm slices from the middle third portion of the root from each sample.

Measurement of dentinal tubule penetration values using confocal laser scanning microscopy

Images of slices were taken after each slice's coronal surface was polished using silicon carbide abrasive paper and viewed under CLSM at ×10. Zeiss Zen software was used to analyze the images. The maximum depth of root canal sealer penetration was measured in micrometers (μm) [Figure 2] from the root canal wall to the point of deepest sealer penetration.
Figure 2: Confocal laser scanning microscope images showing dentinal tubule penetration of root canal sealers in Group 1, 2, 3 and 4

Click here to view


Statistical analysis

MS Excel was used to enter the data and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (Statistical Package for Social sciences Inc., IBM Corporation, Chicago, Illinois, United States) was used to analyze it. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to find the normality. Mean and standard deviation was used to illustrate descriptive statistics. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals were calculated. One-way analysis of variance with a Post hoc Tukey's test was used to determine significance. Statistics were deemed significant at P < 0.05.


   Results Top


The results obtained have exhibited that NTAP-treated samples, i.e., Group 3 and Group 4 had a statistically significant increase in depth of sealer penetration compared to that of their respective control groups, i.e., Group 1 and Group 2 (P < 0.05). Group 3 showed higher mean penetration (1278.90 ± 47.23) followed by Group 4 (958.32 ± 74.99) which is statistically significant. In between-group comparison was done where Group 3 showed higher sealer penetration values than Group 1 and also Group 4 has shown higher sealer penetration values than Group 2 which were statistically significant [Table 1] and [Graph 1].
Table 1: Mean values and standard deviation of the sealer penetration (µm) into the dentinal tubules of four groups

Click here to view




   Discussion Top


Sealers are used to fill the morphologic root canal system irregularities and penetrate dentinal tubules to provide a hermetic seal of the root canal system and to prevent microleakage.[15] The number and diameter of dentinal tubules, dimensions of the root canal as well as chemical and physical characteristics of the root canal sealers, among other variables, all affect the depth of penetration of the sealers. Removal of the smear layer, the type of obturating material, and the type of obturation technique may also improve the penetration depth of sealer.[11]

Dentinal tubules at the coronal third of the root canal have a greater diameter (4.32 μm) than the middle third (3.74 μm) and the apical third (1.73 μm). In root dentin, there is homogeneous distribution of intertubular dentin. Dentinal tubules at the coronal third and middle third of the root canal converge from cemento-dentinal junction to the root canal wall whereas in the apical third dentinal tubules were distorted, which were more convoluted, and had a smaller diameter than the middle third.[16] Apical dentin displays less tubule density with some areas completely devoid of tubules and also showed poor permeability due to age changes and sclerosis of dentinal tubules (Carrigan et al. 1984).[7],[17] The presence of numerous dentinal tubules with a larger diameter is identified in the coronal third of the root canal which may lead to the easy penetrability of the sealers into dentinal tubules. Sealers showed better adaptation and deeper penetration in the middle third of the root canals.[16] Therefore, in the current study, the middle third of the root portion was examined for sealer penetrability for standardization.

When evaluating the adaptability and penetration of root canal sealers, CLSM has advantages over scanning electron microscopy and other methods.[18] At lower magnifications, when viewing horizontal slices, presence of Rhodamine B fluorescence in dentinal tubules enables one to observe adaptation and penetration depth of sealers. At higher magnification, it is therefore simple to confirm a three-dimensional view of sealer adaptation into the root canal and dentinal tubules. Rhodamine B dye labeling is necessary to examine the degree of adaption of root canal sealer and its dentinal tubules penetration, as shown by past investigations employing CLSM. According to the American Dental Association requirements, the sealers labeled with 0.1% Rhodamine B dye variations in flow. Hence, CLSM was selected in the methodology of this study.[19]

In the current investigation, bioceramic sealer after NTAP application (Group 3) exhibited greater sealer penetration values into the dentinal tubules than epoxy resin-based sealer after NTAP application (Group 4). Yesildal Yeter et al. (2022) examined the impact of plasma on Endosequence BC sealer penetration into the dentinal tubules and reported that plasma improved the percentage of penetration values of Endosequence BC root canal sealer when used with a single cone technique.[20] In the course of setting, BioRoot RCS sealer creates a chemical bond with the root dentine by producing hydroxyapatite. In addition, this Bioceramic sealer can easily spread over the dentinal walls due to its low contact angle.[21] Changes on the root canal dentine surface after NTAP application such as wettability, chemical interactions, and grafting hydrophilic groups onto the surface could increase the penetration of Bioceramic sealer into the root dentin. After 30 s NTAP application, the contact angle values decrease and the low contact angle values define the hydrophilic surface properties.[22] However, carbonyl groups of dentin surface increase after NTAP application. These carbonyl groups enhance the hydrophilic property of the dentin surface which might have caused higher sealer penetration in Groups 3 and 4 compared to other groups.[23]

According to Prado et al. the wettability of epoxy resin-based sealer and surface-free energy of the dentin was improved by Argon Plasma which helped the sealer adhere to dentin surfaces.[24] The method of resin-based sealers adhering to dentin was improved by argon plasma. When the epoxide ring opens, the collagen's exposed amino groups react with AH Plus to establish covalent bonds between the collagen and resin.[21],[25] AH plus has greater penetrability into the micro-irregularities of dentinal tubules because of its good flow ability. The consistency and particle size of the sealer have an impact on how well it flows, which in turn affects tubular penetration. AH Plus sealer flow is greater because of the presence of increased concentration of epoxy resin. The long-term polymerization duration and creep capacity affect the mechanical interlocking between AH Plus sealer and the root canal dentin.[26] There are minimal studies which evaluated the application of NTAP on the penetration of root canal sealer.[6],[20],[27] Menezes et al. stated that NTAP applicated showed superior penetration of MTA-Fillapex when compared AH Plus sealer.[6] The penetration rates of AH Plus and Endosequence BC sealers have not been impacted by NTAP, according to Gunes et al. However, the following NTAP treatment, Endosequence BC sealer had maximal penetration than AH Plus sealer.[27]

Bioceramic sealer (Group 1) demonstrated higher sealer penetration values than epoxy resin-based sealer (Group 2) in the current investigation. These findings support a study by El Hachem et al. who found that BC sealer and novel tricalcium silicate sealer outperformed AH Plus sealer pertaining to dentinal tubule penetration.[28] Similar findings were observed in accordance with Cruz et al. and Uzunoglu-Özyürek et al. which showed that the penetrability of BioRoot RCS was higher up as compared with epoxy resin-based sealer.[29],[30] According to Pawar et al., leakage was exhibited due to insufficient adhesion between gutta-percha and the sealer. Owing to the resin it contains and its quicker setting time, AH Plus has a propensity to shrink and induce early debonding from the root canal.[31]

The application of NTAP resulted in dentin substrate surface alteration without topographical destructive effects. Negative results after 45 s are linked to a prolonged plasma exposure that may begin destroying the inorganic structure of the dentin by reducing the phosphate species in relation to the carboxylic groups.[32]

To the best of the author's knowledge, there is no enough published research on the use of NTAP on patients in endodontics. The complexity and availability of delivery systems have limited the usage of in vitro studies as per the current published data. On the other hand, delivery tips available at present are not to the scale of intraoral usage. Additional research should be conducted to learn more about the impact of NTAP on the root dentin analyze the various application times, and develop a standard protocol for NTAP treatment.


   Conclusion Top


The current confocal laser scanning microscopic study concluded that the application of NTAP improved the penetration of epoxy resin-based and bioceramic sealers into the dentinal tubules in comparison with other groups. Bioceramic sealer with the application of NTAP showed better sealer penetration values than other groups.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Ng YL, Mann V, Rahbaran S, Lewsey J, Gulabivala K. Outcome of primary root canal treatment: Systematic review of the literature – Part 2. Influence of clinical factors. Int Endod J 2008;41:6-31.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Komabayashi T, Colmenar D, Cvach N, Bhat A, Primus C, Imai Y. Comprehensive review of current endodontic sealers. Dent Mater J 2020;39:703-20.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Balguerie E, van der Sluis L, Vallaeys K, Gurgel-Georgelin M, Diemer F. Sealer penetration and adaptation in the dentinal tubules: A scanning electron microscopic study. J Endod 2011;37:1576-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Dayanand Chole D, Vaidya DM, Shashank Kundoor D, Srinivas Bakle RD, Gandhi DN, Hatte DN. Comparative evaluation of push-out bond strength of different endodontic sealers: An in vitro study. IOSR J Dent Med Sci 2019;18:59-62.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kokkas AB, Boutsioukis AC, Vassiliadis LP, Stavrianos CK. The influence of the smear layer on dentinal tubule penetration depth by three different root canal sealers: An in vitro study. J Endod 2004;30:100-2.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Menezes M, Prado M, Gomes B, Gusman H, Simão R. Effect of photodynamic therapy and non-thermal plasma on root canal filling: Analysis of adhesion and sealer penetration. J Appl Oral Sci 2017;25:396-403.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Mamootil K, Messer HH. Penetration of dentinal tubules by endodontic sealer cements in extracted teeth and in vivo. Int Endod J 2007;40:873-81.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Du T, Ma J, Yang P, Xiong Z, Lu X, Cao Y. Evaluation of antibacterial effects by atmospheric pressure nonequilibrium plasmas against Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro. J Endod 2012;38:545-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Pan J, Sun K, Liang Y, Sun P, Yang X, Wang J, et al. Cold plasma therapy of a tooth root canal infected with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms in vitro. J Endod 2013;39:105-10.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Yeter KY, Gunes B, Terlemez A, Seker E. The effect of nonthermal plasma on the push-out bond strength of two different root canal sealers. Niger J Clin Pract 2020;23:811-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
11.
Chandra SS, Shankar P, Indira R. Depth of penetration of four resin sealers into radicular dentinal tubules: A confocal microscopic study. J Endod 2012;38:1412-6.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Chauhan R, Tikku A, Chandra A. Detection of residual obturation material after root canal retreatment with three different techniques using a dental operating microscope and a stereomicroscope: An in vitro comparative evaluation. J Conserv Dent 2012;15:218-22.  Back to cited text no. 12
  [Full text]  
13.
Garlapati R, Chandra KM, Gali PK, Nagesh B, Vemuri S, Gomathi N. Effect of nonthermal atmospheric plasma on the push-out bond strength of epoxy resin-based and bioceramic root canal sealers: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2021;24:41-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
  [Full text]  
14.
Nagesh B, Chowdary KH, Gali PK, Sravanthi T, Potru LB, Mayana AB. Effect of nonthermal atmospheric plasma on the shear bond strength of composite resin after using different tooth-whitening systems: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2021;24:135-40.  Back to cited text no. 14
  [Full text]  
15.
Generali L, Cavani F, Serena V, Pettenati C, Righi E, Bertoldi C. Effect of different irrigation systems on sealer penetration into dentinal tubules. J Endod 2017;43:652-6.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Lo Giudice G, Cutroneo G, Centofanti A, Artemisia A, Bramanti E, Militi A, et al. Dentin morphology of root canal surface: A quantitative evaluation based on a scanning electronic microscopy study. Biomed Res Int 2015;2015:164065.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Carrigan PJ, Morse DR, Furst ML, Sinai IH. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of human dentinal tubules according to age and location. J Endod 1984;10:359-63.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Pioch T, Stotz S, Buff E, Duschner H, Staehle HJ. Influence of different etching times on hybrid layer formation and tensile bond strength. Am J Dent 1998;11:202-6.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Kara Tuncer A, Tuncer S. Effect of different final irrigation solutions on dentinal tubule penetration depth and percentage of root canal sealer. J Endod 2012;38:860-3.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Yesildal Yeter K, Gunes B, Seker B. The effect of atmospheric cold plasma on the dentinal tubule penetration of calcium silicate-based sealer used with different obturation techniques: A confocal laser scanning microscopy study. Aust Endod J 2022;48:151-7.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Gade VJ, Belsare LD, Patil S, Bhede R, Gade JR. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of endosequence BC sealer with lateral condensation and thermoplasticized technique: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2015;18:124-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
22.
Chen M, Zhang Y, Sky Driver M, Caruso AN, Yu Q, Wang Y. Surface modification of several dental substrates by non-thermal, atmospheric plasma brush. Dent Mater 2013;29:871-80.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Dong X, Ritts AC, Staller C, Yu Q, Chen M, Wang Y. Evaluation of plasma treatment effects on improving adhesive-dentin bonding by using the same tooth controls and varying cross-sectional surface areas. Eur J Oral Sci 2013;121:355-62.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Prado M, Menezes MS, Gomes BP, Barbosa CA, Athias L, Simão RA. Surface modification of gutta-percha cones by non-thermal plasma. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2016;68:343-9.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Lee KW, Williams MC, Camps JJ, Pashley DH. Adhesion of endodontic sealers to dentin and gutta-percha. J Endod 2002;28:684-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Nunes VH, Silva RG, Alfredo E, Sousa-Neto MD, Silva-Sousa YT. Adhesion of Epiphany and AH Plus sealers to human root dentin treated with different solutions. Braz Dent J 2008;19:46-50.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Gunes B, Yeter KY, Terlemez A, Seker B, Altay Y. Dentinal tubule penetration of endodontic sealers after nonthermal plasma treatment: A confocal laser scanning microscopy study. Microsc Res Tech 2019;82:903-8.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
El Hachem R, Khalil I, Le Brun G, Pellen F, Le Jeune B, Daou M, et al. Dentinal tubule penetration of AH Plus, BC Sealer and a novel tricalcium silicate sealer: A confocal laser scanning microscopy study. Clin Oral Investig 2019;23:1871-6.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Cruz AT, Grecca FS, Piasecki L, Wichnieski C, Westphalen VP, Carneiro E, et al. Influence of the calcium hydroxide intracanal dressing on dentinal tubule penetration of two root canal sealers. Eur Endod J 2017;2:1-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Uzunoglu-Özyürek E, Erdoğan Ö, Aktemur Türker S. Effect of calcium hydroxide dressing on the dentinal tubule penetration of 2 different root canal sealers: A confocal laser scanning microscopic study. J Endod 2018;44:1018-23.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.
Pawar SS, Pujar MA, Makandar SD. Evaluation of the apical sealing ability of bioceramic sealer, AH plus & epiphany: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2014;17:579-82.  Back to cited text no. 31
  [Full text]  
32.
Abreu JL, Prado M, Simão RA, Silva EM, Dias KR. Effect of non-thermal argon plasma on bond strength of a self-etch adhesive system to NaOCl-treated dentin. Braz Dent J 2016;27:446-51.  Back to cited text no. 32
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Dr. Roopadevi Garlapati
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sibar Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jcd.jcd_22_23

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top
 
 
 
  Search
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
   Introduction
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
   Conclusion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3933    
    Printed308    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded119    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal