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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 301-304
CRIS Guidelines (Checklist for Reporting In-vitro Studies): A concept note on the need for standardized guidelines for improving quality and transparency in reporting in-vitro studies in experimental dental research

1 Associate Editor, Journal of Conservative Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Editor, journal of conservative dentistry, Thai mookambigai dental college, chennai, Medical director, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
3 ASPIRE (A Society for Primary health care Intervention Research and Education), Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission30-May-2014
Date of Decision15-Jun-2014
Date of Acceptance22-Jun-2014
Date of Web Publication10-Jul-2014


In vitro studies form a pivotal role in dental research contribution to a substantial evidence base. The reporting standards of these studies are not uniform thus resulting in lacunae in evidence reported. The effort of this concept note is to propose a Checklist for Reporting in vitro Studies (CRIS guidelines) that would promote quality and transparency in reporting in vitro studies.

Keywords: Reporting guidelines; in-vitro studies; quality; transparency

How to cite this article:
Krithikadatta J, Gopikrishna V, Datta M. CRIS Guidelines (Checklist for Reporting In-vitro Studies): A concept note on the need for standardized guidelines for improving quality and transparency in reporting in-vitro studies in experimental dental research. J Conserv Dent 2014;17:301-4

How to cite this URL:
Krithikadatta J, Gopikrishna V, Datta M. CRIS Guidelines (Checklist for Reporting In-vitro Studies): A concept note on the need for standardized guidelines for improving quality and transparency in reporting in-vitro studies in experimental dental research. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2014 [cited 2023 Jun 8];17:301-4. Available from:

   Background Top

Dentistry is a unique field of medicine wherein the combination of a complex oral environment and functionally demanding occlusal loads make it one of the most challenging therapeutic regions to restore. Thus, the twin focus of dental research has been in treating the burden of oral disease and in evolving superior dental biomaterials. Knowledge from dental research is thereby validated through both in vitro studies and clinical research.

In vitro studies provide us with the platform to create, compare and check dental materials prior to their clinical application. In vitro research is an integral part of clinical decision-making as this helps the clinician to understand the physical, mechanical, and biological properties of dental materials and dental hard/soft tissues. In vitro studies thereby forms the major proportion of research that is carried out and published in dentistry. Among the articles submitted in Journal of Conservative Dentistry, 82% are in vitro research. A survey of the articles published in few of the leading journals related to dental materials and Endodontics showed that substantial proportion of in vitro studies (Dental materials 98%, International Endodontic Journal 88%, Journal of Endodontics 65%, and Operative Dentistry 74%). It is needless to say that the relevance of in vitro studies cannot be over-emphasized.

Our understanding of material behavior has been accumulated over the years only through systematic and meticulous in vitro research. For example, fracture resistance of natural tooth following endodontic treatment or compressive strength of composite resins cannot be studied clinically. Another reason to rely predominantly on in vitro studies is due to the fact that there is rapid advancement in material science and in basic technology used to assess these materials. The time taken to process the in vitro conclusions through clinical research is not compatible with the need to ensure temporal relevance. Hence, newer materials are often tested against existing in vitro standards and the results are taken to apply to clinical significance. For example, it is known that total-etch technique provides maximum bond strength and newer bonding agents are usually tested against this as standard. Needless to say, in vitro studies are easy to perform and are done under controlled environment, thus reducing the risk of bias. Nevertheless the acid test is how they translate in the clinical situation.

Results of in vitro studies are often applied in research and development of dental material innovations, discovery of new drugs and understanding material behavior. Published in vitro studies enable the reader/clinician to analyze and understand the variability affecting the outcome measure of a material, thus facilitating evidence based practice. Systematic reviews of in vitro studies can be performed to consolidate evidence about similar materials/technique. This way, manufactures, clinicians and researchers rely on in vitro studies to deduce inferences. However lack of uniform methods and reporting hamper the meaningful comparisons of these studies.

   Current Lacuna in Reporting In Vitro Studies Top

Most of the in vitro studies follow an experimental design. In this design, hypothesis testing follows analytical inference between the groups/materials tested. The structure of an in vitro study closely resembles that of a clinical trial, in other words, it is a trial conducted in a lab. The merits of in vitro studies as compared to that of a trial include: Control over independent variables and unforeseen bias and ease of operation. This improves internal validity of the results. However, one of the major demerits is that it lacks external validity and generalizability to clinical situations. Though in vitro studies are relatively simpler to perform, they lack certain methodological rigor that clinical trials demonstrate.

Existing lacunae among in vitro studies that need to be addressed to promote quality and transparency of evidence could include the reporting of:

Sample size calculation

The significance of sample size is well-understood and needless to say it has a huge impact on the results of the study. One of the main reasons for statistically insignificant results could be a small sample size. However, most published in vitro studies do not include calculation of sample size as one of the steps in methodology. Instead of choosing the required sample size to test the hypothesis, we tend to choose a statistical method (nonparamentric tests) to analyze data sets from smaller sample sizes. In the place of comparing mean value of the samples and its distribution, we compare median and ranks of median. In situations when we can use actual sample size that allows comparison of mean and the distribution between groups, we are ethically bound to do so. In the event of procuring samples due to cost or feasibility is difficult, a smaller sample size with appropriate statistical method to analyze data could be performed. For example, shear bond strength testing of bonding agents or dentin tubule disinfection studies are methods where required samples size can be assembled without escalating the logistics of the study.

Meaningful difference between groups

One of the information required to compute sample size in estimating mean is the "meaningful difference." Meaningful difference is the difference by which the newer tested material is superior to the existing standard. For example, if the compressive strength of material A is x MPa, then the newer material B should demonstrate a compressive strength of x+x' MPa for it to be superior to material A. Here, x' is the meaningful difference and this measure can only be decided by the researcher. This difference is often set at a measure that would make a difference clinically or scientifically. Meaningful difference is indirectly proportional to sample size. Greater the meaningful difference, lesser is the sample size. However, it is prudent to set this difference as close to clinical scenario as possible. This is a significant step while recommending a new material as a viable alternative to an existing standard.

Sample preparation and handling

A detailed explanation about sample preparation and sample handling helps the reader to understand the simplicity or complexity of the experiment conducted. Information on sample loss at crucial steps would promote transparency of the experiment and minimize bias. For example there is a high risk of sample contamination in a microbiological study. If this risk is calculated before hand and additional number of samples included prior to commencement of the study, then the bias related to loss of sample could be minimized. This is similar to the clinical trial where allowance of 10-15% is made to compensate for drop-outs and loss to follow-up. Another area where sample preparation is important is when we make multiple samples from the same specimen. For example, samples created for micro-tensile bond strength or biofilm analysis on two halves of the same tooth. Technically speaking, these are all samples from a single specimen and cannot be regarded as individual samples. The editor of operative dentistry emphasized in one of the editorials that multiple samples obtained from single tooth for micro-tensile bond testing should be treated as an average for that tooth rather than using individual samples as such. [1] Or, they could be treated as a cluster, and the appropriate correction made in sample size. This is relevant because, if we obtain five samples from each tooth, then three teeth will yield 15 samples. It will be an error to infer from three samples! It would be better to use the five samples from the same tooth to record the variations within the tooth.

Allocation sequence, randomization and blinding

When an experiment is conducted, it is often a single researcher who prepares the samples, allocates them to groups, conducts the study and assesses the outcome. In the last 5 years there is a change in the method of outcome assessment among many researchers. There are usually two independent observers who assess the outcome of the experiment to promote transparency of the results. However there could be a potential for bias in allocating the samples to the groups. A person independent of the experiment could also do this step. This could be a lab assistant or clerical staff. These methods (allocation concealment and outcome assessment) of blinding can minimize bias. Next is the method of allocating the samples to the groups. Several manuscripts refer to this step as "randomly allocated to groups", however, randomization itself is an important and a systematic step in clinical trials. Randomization refers to the equal and independent possibility of a sample entering any group. The sequence of samples allotted to groups is often predetermined using a randomization chart or a computer generated random sequence table. Randomization:

  1. Balances known and unknown factors and eliminates bias,
  2. Permits the use of probability theory that the likelihood of a difference in outcome between groups is by chance, and
  3. Maintains a certain degree of blinding of samples. [2],[3],[4]

Statistical analysis

The statistical method for analyzing data is often a crucial step while rejecting hypothesis in both clinical and in-vitro research. While most authors address analysis for the primary objective, the same for the secondary objective is often not reported. There have also been reports on misuse of statistical methods in dental literature. [5],[6] The results of certain studies have completely changed when correct statistics were applied. [7] The editorial published in the International Endodontics Journal provided statistical guidelines for manuscript submissions. [8] It is important to understand that statistical significance is not the deciding factor in a study; rather it gives the researcher a direction towards what the results indicate. Hence to look in the right direction, we need to use the right statistics and apply statistics to both primary and secondary objective if any.

Need for CRIS Guidelines for in-vitro dental research

Evidence is categorical in clinical research, whichstates "Assessment of health care interventions can be misleading unless investigators ensure unbiased comparisons. Random allocation to study groups remains the only method that eliminates selection and confounding bias." [9] This has led to formulation of checklists for reporting clinical studies. These include; CONSORT guidelines for clinical trials [9] , STROBE guidelines for observational studies [10] , STRAD guidelines for studies involving diagnostic tests, [11] and PRISMA guidelines for meta-analysis and systematic review. [12] These guidelines urge the investigator to report the study in concurrence to an itemized checklist. The need for standard reporting of clinical trials first started in the early 1990s and by 1996, the first version of CONSORT was formulated. This underwent modifications in 2001 and 2010. [5] The premise of CONSORT has paved way for other checklists, which are primarily an adaptation of CONSORT to suit their respective needs. [11] The checklist however does not aim to improve the quality of the study but helps to satisfy certain standard requirements that allow comparability across several studies. [9] The success of these guidelines has ensured transparency of clinical studies and has improved evidence based patient care. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have also become more comprehensive and meaningful. CONSORT guideline has been accepted by over 400 journals since its introduction in 1996. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) endorses this guideline. [13] There is convincing evidence that journals using CONSORT guideline has improved the quality of reports of clinical trials. [14],[15],[16]

Extrapolation of a similar guideline to suit in vitro studies would immensely improve the quality of reporting across in vitro studies. As of now, there has been no validated guidelines or check list for reporting in vitro studies. The prime focus of this concept note is to sensitize the research fraternity regarding this lacuna and propose the concept to develop standardized guidelines for conducting and reporting in vitro dental research.

This checklist for in vitro studies would be an adaptation the CONSORT guidelines since the methodological structure of in vitro study and clinical trial are similar. The checklist would help to address most of the above mentioned lacunae. Apart from this, clear guidelines for reporting would be recommended in the Introduction, Materials and methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD) format of manuscript preparation. Although items like sample size calculation, meaningful difference, and randomization are not featured in a conventional structure of an in vitro study it is obvious that these would make the in vitro study reporting robust and significant. In turn the designing of experiments, and their comparability would improve.

A good beginning would be to create a checklist with leads from the CONSORT and to validate the checklist for its effectiveness. A Delphi group needs to be called to identify items in the CONSORT that need to be retained or modified. Focus group discussions and consensus meetings with interested collaborators is mandatory in creating a comprehensive checklist. This checklist then needs to be validated. The J Conserv Dent proposes to undertake the formation and validation of a Checklist for Reporting In vitro Study (CRIS guidelines).

   Conclusion Top

CRIS guidelines could standardize the reporting of in vitro experimental studies in dentistry thereby promoting transparency and quality of these studies.

   Acknowledgements Top

The authors thank Dr. Spoorthy Reddy, Sr. Lecturer, Dept of Conservative Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai for providing information during manuscript preparation.

   References Top

1.Platt JA. Decades of bond strength. Oper Dent 2010;32:13-38.  Back to cited text no. 1
2.Schulz KF. Randomized controlled trials. Clin Obstet Gynecol 1998;41:245-56.  Back to cited text no. 2
3.Greenland S. Randomization, statistics, and causal inference. 
Epidemiology 1990;1:421-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
4.Armitage P. The role of randomization in clinical trials. Stat Med 
1982;1:345-52.  Back to cited text no. 4
5.Vähänikkilä H, Nieminen P, Miettunen J, Larmas M. Use of statistical methods in dental research: Comparison of four dental journals during a 10-year period. Acta Odontol Scand 2009;67:206-11.  Back to cited text no. 5
6.Krithikadatta J, Valarmathi S. Research methodology in dentistry: Part II - The relevance of statistics in research. J Conserv Dent 2012;15:206-13.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
7.Lucena C, Lo´0pez JM, Abalos C, Robles V, Pulgar R. Statistical errors in microleakage studies in operative dentistry. A survey of the literature 2001-2009. Eur J Oral Sci 2011;119:504-10.  Back to cited text no. 7
8.Souza E. Research that matters: Setting guidelines for the use and reporting of statistics. Int Endodon J 2014;47:115-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
9.Moher D, Hopewell S, Schulz KF, Montori V, Gøtzsche PC, Devereaux PJ, et al. CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ 2010;340:c869.  Back to cited text no. 9
10.von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. STROBE Initiative. 
The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. 
J Clin Epidemiol 2008;61:344-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
11.Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB. Standards for reporting of diagnostic accuracy. The STARD initiative. Lancet 2003;361:71.  Back to cited text no. 11
12.Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. The PRISMA Group (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA Statement. BMJ 2009;339:b2535.  Back to cited text no. 12
13.Davidoff F. News from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:229-31.  Back to cited text no. 13
14.Hopewell S, Dutton S, Yu LM, Chan AW, Altman DG. The quality of reports of randomised trials in 2000 and 2006: Comparative study of articles indexed in PubMed. BMJ 2010;340:c723.  Back to cited text no. 14
15.Plint AC, Moher D, Morrison A, Schulz K, Altman DG, Hill C, et al. Does the CONSORT checklist improve the quality of reports of randomised controlled trials? A systematic review. Med J Aust 2006;185:263-7.  Back to cited text no. 15
16.Egger M, Jüni P, Bartlett C. Value of flow diagrams in reports of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 2001;285:1996-9.  Back to cited text no. 16

Correspondence Address:
Jogikalmat Krithikadatta
Associate Editor, Journal of Conservative Dentistry, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.136338

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39 Marginal Adaptation and Internal Fit of 3D-Printed Provisional Crowns and Fixed Dental Prosthesis Resins Compared to CAD/CAM-Milled and Conventional Provisional Resins: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Mohammed Hussain Dafer Al Wadei, Mohammed E. Sayed, Saurabh Jain, Aparna Aggarwal, Hatem Alqarni, Shilpi Gilra Gupta, Saeed M. Alqahtani, Nasser M. Alahmari, Abdullah Hasan Alshehri, Meena Jain, Abrar A. Ageeli, Saad Saleh AlResayes, Samar Alghamdi, Alhanouf K. Alnajdi, Mafaz M. Gharawi
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40 Effect of Additional Dry Heat Curing on Microflexural Strength in Three Types of Resin Composite: An In Vitro Study
Marlon Zamalloa-Quintana, Carlos López-Gurreonero, Flor Magaly Santander-Rengifo, Marysela Ladera-Castañeda, Antonieta Castro-Pérez Vargas, Alberto Cornejo-Pinto, Luis Cervantes-Ganoza, César Cayo-Rojas
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41 Two Gingival Cell Lines Response to Different Dental Implant Abutment Materials: An In Vitro Study
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42 Visual inspection of root patterns and radiographic estimation of its canal configurations by confirmation using sectioning method. An ex vivo study on maxillary first premolar teeth
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BMC Oral Health. 2022; 22(1)
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43 Surface roughness and oxygen inhibited layer control in bulk-fill and conventional nanohybrid resin composites with and without polishing: in vitro study
Andrea Gaviria-Martinez, Leonor Castro-Ramirez, Marysela Ladera-Castañeda, Luis Cervantes-Ganoza, Hernán Cachay-Criado, María Alvino-Vales, Goretty Garcia-Luna, Carlos López-Gurreonero, Alberto Cornejo-Pinto, César F. Cayo-Rojas
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44 Functional Ability of Dental Materials After Inclusion of Nanocarriers Containing Functional Substances: A Systematic Review
Moan Jéfter Fernandes Costa, Francisca Jennifer Duarte de Oliveira, Renally Bezerra Wanderley e Lima, Boniek Castillo Dutra Borges
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 2022; 22(21): 2799
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45 Protective Barriers and Radiant Exposure Delivered from Light-curing Units
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46 Characterization of Contemporary Conventional, Bulk-fill, and Self-adhesive Resin Composite Materials
C David, CE Cuevas-Suárez, GC de Cardoso, CP Isolan, RR de Moraes, WLO da Rosa, EA Münchow, AF da Silva
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47 Effectiveness of the REvision System and Sonic Irrigation in the Removal of Root Canal Filling Material from Oval Canals: An In Vitro Study
Marc Krikor Kaloustian, Claire El Hachem, Carla Zogheib, Walid Nehme, Louis Hardan, Pamela Rached, Naji Kharouf, Youssef Haikel, Davide Mancino
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48 Plasma of Argon Treatment of the Implant Surface, Systematic Review of In Vitro Studies
Massimo Carossa, Davide Cavagnetto, Francesca Mancini, Alessandro Mosca Balma, Federico Mussano
Biomolecules. 2022; 12(9): 1219
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49 Effect of 16% Carbamide Peroxide and Activated-Charcoal-Based Whitening Toothpaste on Enamel Surface Roughness in Bovine Teeth: An In Vitro Study
Jorge Zamudio-Santiago, Marysela Ladera-Castañeda, Flor Santander-Rengifo, Carlos López-Gurreonero, Alberto Cornejo-Pinto, Ali Echavarría-Gálvez, Luis Cervantes-Ganoza, César Cayo-Rojas
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50 Comparative evaluation of the fracture resistance of newly developed prefabricated fibreglass crowns and zirconium crowns
Zülfikar Zahit Çiftçi, Ipek Sahin, Hüseyin Karayilmaz
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2022;
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51 Effect of different cleansing methods on the artificially aged bond strength of resin to contaminated zirconia: A systematic review
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52 The genomic and proteomic landscape in oral lichen planus versus oral squamous cell carcinoma: a scoping review
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International Journal of Dermatology. 2022;
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53 Meta-analysis on reporting practices as a source of heterogeneity in in vitro cancer research
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BMJ Open Science. 2022; 6(1): e100272
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54 Efficacy of CAD/CAM Glass Fiber Posts for the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Teeth
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International Journal of Biomaterials. 2022; 2022: 1
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55 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2), Turmeric (Curcumin) Photosensitizers Mediated Photodynamic Therapy, and Er, Cr: YSGG on Microleakage of Class V Cavities Restored by Resin-Modified Glass-Ionomer Cement
Mohammad Shahul Hameed, Zuhair M. Alkahtani, Master Luqman Mannakandath, Muhammed Ajmal, Abdulaziz Alshahrani, Muhammad Abdullah Kamran
Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering. 2022; 12(8): 1676
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56 Comparative evaluation of fragment reattachment protocols for the management of teeth with crown-root fractures
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57 Influence of different intraradicular chemical pretreatments on the bond strength of adhesive interface between dentine and fiber post cements: A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Ana Luiza Barbosa Jurema, Ayla Macyelle de Oliveira Correia, Manuela da Silva Spinola, Eduardo Bresciani, Taciana Marco Ferraz Caneppele
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58 A snapshot of statistical methods used in experimental immunoblotting: a scoping review
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4open. 2022; 5: 9
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59 Review on Ethics in Research – Homoeopathic Perspective
Amulya Ratna Sahoo, Banupriya Damodaran, Chaturbhuja Nayak, Umakanta Prusty, Priyanka Ghosh
Homœopathic Links. 2022; 35(04): 276
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60 Artificial biofilm removal in a peri-implant mucositis model: Efficacy of air polishing technology as adjunct to ultrasonic debridement alone and impact of the site and the depth of mucosal tunnel—An in vitro study
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Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 2022;
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61 Efficacy of sonic and ultrasonic activation during endodontic treatment: a Meta-analysis of in vitro studies
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Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2022; : 1
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62 Drug Release and Cytotoxicity of Hyaluronic Acid and Zinc Oxide Gels, An In-Vitro Study
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Designed Monomers and Polymers. 2022; 25(1): 212
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63 Enhancement of fluoride release in glass ionomer cements modified with titanium dioxide nanoparticles
Adriana Alejandra Morales-Valenzuela, Rogelio José Scougall-Vilchis, Edith Lara-Carrillo, Rene Garcia-Contreras, Wael Hegazy-Hassan, Víctor Hugo Toral-Rizo, Elias Nahum Salmerón-Valdés
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64 Effect of a dynamic navigation device on the accuracy of implant placement in the completely edentulous mandible: An in vitro study
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65 Does the incorporation of zinc into TiO2 on titanium surfaces increase bactericidal activity? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Douglas Thainan Silva Lima Mendes, Gusttavo Reis Leite Matos, Sandra Andreia Stwart de Araújo Souza, Michelle Cardinale Souza Silva Macedo, Débora dos Santos Tavares, Cristiane Xavier Resende
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66 Development and validation of a risk-of-bias tool for assessing in vitro studies conducted in dentistry: The QUIN
Vidhi H. Sheth, Naisargi P. Shah, Romi Jain, Nikhil Bhanushali, Vishrut Bhatnagar
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67 How does the novel piezoelectric 11 Gracey Curette compare to Gracey Curette or piezoelectric scaler?
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68 Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, photosensitizers, green tea extract, and propolis on bond integrity and microleakage of caries-affected dentin. An in-vitro study
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69 Influence of irrigation and laser assisted root canal disinfection protocols on dislocation resistance of a bioceramic sealer
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70 Dynamic navigation for dental implant placement in single-tooth gaps: A preclinical pilot investigation
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71 Surface Microhardness of Bulk-Fill Resin Composites Handled With Gloves
Julissa Berto-Inga, Flor Santander-Rengifo, Marysela Ladera-Castañeda, Carlos López-Gurreonero, Antonieta Castro Pérez-Vargas, Alberto Cornejo-Pinto, Luis Cervantes-Ganoza, César Cayo-Rojas
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72 Improved osteoblast function on titanium implant surfaces coated with nanocomposite Apatite–Wollastonite–Chitosan– an experimental in-vitro study
Shayanti Mukherjee, Smriti Sharma, Vivek Soni, Amruta Joshi, Amit Gaikwad, Jayesh Bellare, Jyoti Kode
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine. 2022; 33(3)
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73 Medicinal plants as potential therapeutic agents for trypanosomosis: a systematic review
Moitshepi Plaatjie, ThankGod Onyiche, Lesetja Legoabe, Tsepo Ramatla, Nthatisi Nyembe, Keisuke Suganuma, Oriel Thekisoe
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74 Does silver diammine fluoride concentration influence on bonding to carious dentinal lesions in primary teeth?
M. M. Scherer, N. F. Lunkes, I. P. M. Soares, C. A. de Oliveira, J. C. P. Imparato, J. Hebling, T. L. Lenzi
European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. 2022;
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75 What do we know about the mechanisms of action of probiotics on factors involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis? A scoping review of in vitro studies
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Archives of Oral Biology. 2021; 129: 105196
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76 Virucidal efficacy of chlorhexidine: a systematic review
Matheus dos Santos Fernandez, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes, Gerson Pedro José Langa, Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing, Juliano Cavagni, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes Muniz
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77 Microleakage of pit and fissure sealings placed after enamel conditioning with phosphoric acid or with self-etching primers/adhesives
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Clinical and Experimental Dental Research. 2021; 7(5): 763
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78 Synergistic antimicrobial effect of photodynamic therapy and chitosan on the titanium-adherent biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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79 A systematic review of preclinical studies on the efficacy of taurine for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
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Amino Acids. 2021; 53(6): 783
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80 Dental stem cell signaling pathway activation in response to hydraulic calcium silicate-based endodontic cements: A systematic review of in vitro studies
José Luis Sanz, Francisco Javier Rodríguez-Lozano, Concha Lopez-Gines, Daniel Monleon, Carmen Llena, Leopoldo Forner
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81 Sealing ability and microbial leakage of root-end filling materials: MTA versus epoxy resin: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Mario Dioguardi, Mario Alovisi, Diego Sovereto, Giuseppe Troiano, Giancarlo Malagnino, Michele Di Cosola, Angela Pia Cazzolla, Luigi Laino, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
Heliyon. 2021; 7(7): e07494
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82 Systematic review of Ethiopian medicinal plants used for their anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities
Dereje Nigussie, Eyasu Makonnen, Takele Beyene Tufa, Malcolm Brewster, Belete Adefris Legesse, Abebaw Fekadu, Gail Davey
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83 Cross-sectional visual comparison of remineralization efficacy of various agents on early smooth surface caries of primary teeth with swept source optical coherence tomography
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Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research. 2021; 11(4): 628
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84 Digital versus conventional workflow for the fabrication of physical casts for fixed prosthodontics: A systematic review of accuracy
Hian Parize, Juliana Dias Corpa Tardelli, Lauren Bohner, Newton Sesma, Valdir Antônio Muglia, Andréa Cândido dos Reis
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85 Effect of intraradicular fiber post on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated and restored anterior teeth: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Ana Luiza Barbosa Jurema, Amanda Tauchen Filgueiras, Kamilla Alves Santos, Eduardo Bresciani, Taciana Marco Ferraz Caneppele
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86 Nanoparticle incorporated dentin bonding agent to caries effected dentin treated by photodynamic therapy, laser or chlorhexidine
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Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2021; 36: 102495
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87 Influence of methylthioninium chloride, curcumin and Er, Cr: YSGG on caries affected dentin bonded to bioactive and conventional bulk fill dental restorative material
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Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2021; 36: 102512
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88 Efficacy of porphyrin derivative, Chlorhexidine and PDT in the surface disinfection and roughness of Cobalt chromium alloy removable partial dentures
Eman M. AlHamdan, Samar Al-Saleh, Sidra Sadaf Nisar, Ibraheem Alshiddi, Abdulaziz S. Alqahtani, Khaled M. Alzahrani, Mustafa Naseem, Fahim Vohra, Tariq Abduljabbar
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2021; 36: 102515
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89 Photodynamic therapy and gaseous ozone versus conventional post space treatment methods on the push-out bond strength of fiber posts luting with different resin cements
Cihan Küden, Seda Nur Karakas
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2021; 36: 102586
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90 Disinfection of radicular dentin using Riboflavin, Rose Bengal, Curcumin, and Porfimer sodium on extrusion bond strength of fiber post to radicular dentin
Sami A Alturaiki, Ahmed A. Bamanie, Mohammed A. Albulowey, Abdullah A. Al Daafas, Abdullah Almalki, Ali Alqerban
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2021; : 102625
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91 Is prior conditioning of dentin necessary in restoration with glass-ionomer cement? A systematic review and network meta-analysis
Luiz Eduardo Lucas S. Lopes, Tamara Kerber Tedesco, Ana Flávia Bissoto Calvo, José Carlos P Imparato, Daniela Prócida Raggio, Fausto Medeiros Mendes, Thais Gimenez
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives. 2021; 104: 102748
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92 Insufficient transparency of statistical reporting in preclinical research: a scoping review
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Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
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93 Influence of chelating solutions on tubular dentin sealer penetration: A systematic review with network meta-analysis
Felipe Souza Matos, Camila Maria Peres de Rosatto, Thaís Christina Cunha, Maria Tereza Campos Vidigal, Cauane Blumenberg, Luiz Renato Paranhos, Camilla Christian Gomes Moura
Australian Endodontic Journal. 2021;
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94 In vitro evaluation of bioburden, three-dimensional stability, and accuracy of surgical templates without metallic sleeves after routinely infection control activities
Marco Tallarico, Aurea Immacolata Lumbau, Chang-Joo Park, Antonio Puddu, Franco Sanseverino, Rocco Amarena, Silvio Mario Meloni
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 2021; 23(3): 380
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95 Comparison of the accuracy of implant placement using different drilling systems for static computer-assisted implant surgery: A simulation-based experimental study
Paknisa Sittikornpaiboon, Sirida Arunjaroensuk, Boosana Kaboosaya, Keskanya Subbalekha, Nikos Mattheos, Atiphan Pimkhaokham
Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. 2021; 23(4): 635
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96 Fracture resistance of resin based and lithium disilicate endocrowns. Which is better? – A systematic review of in-vitro studies
Joshna Beji Vijayakumar, Preethi Varadan, Lakshmi Balaji, Mathan Rajan, Rajeswari Kalaiselvam, Sindhu Saeralaathan, Arathi Ganesh
Biomaterial Investigations in Dentistry. 2021; 8(1): 104
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97 Flexural Strength of an Indirect Composite Modified with Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
Pedro Rogério Camargos Pennisi, Pedro Urquiza Jayme Silva, Fábio Scorsolini Valverde, Ticiane Campos Clemente, Vitória Cerri, Maria Eduarda Biaco, Rebeca Garcia Rosa Ferreira, Luiz Renato Paranhos, Eduardo Buozi Moffa
European Journal of Dentistry. 2021;
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98 Bond Strength and Microleakage of a Novel Glass Ionomer Cement Containing Silver Diamine Fluoride
Prim Auychai, Nichakorn Khumtrakoon, Chonticha Jitongart, Punnamas Daomanee, Arunee Laiteerapong
European Journal of Dentistry. 2021;
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99 Comparison of three protocols for the management of re-fracture of teeth with uncomplicated crown fractures
Nitesh Tewari, Rigzen Tamchos, Bikash Chaurasia, Morankar Rahul, Vijay Prakash Mathur, Shubhi Goel, Kalpana Bansal
Dental Traumatology. 2021;
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100 Root canal curvature as a prognostic factor influencing the diagnostic accuracy of radiographic working length determination and postoperative canal axis modification: an in vitro comparative study
Bestoon Mohammed Faraj
BMC Oral Health. 2021; 21(1)
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101 Laboratory evaluation of the potential masking of color changes produced by silver diamine fluoride in primary molars
Dina Hamdy, Maria Giraki, Amr Abd Elaziz, Amira Badran, Gehan Allam, Stefan Ruettermann
BMC Oral Health. 2021; 21(1)
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102 Void characteristics and tortuosity of calcium silicate-based cements for regenerative endodontics: a micro-computed tomography analysis
Sang-Yeop Chung, Yun Hyeong Kim, Yong Kwon Chae, Su-Sung Jo, Sung Chul Choi, Ok Hyung Nam
BMC Oral Health. 2021; 21(1)
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103 Wear and marginal quality of aesthetic crowns for primary molars
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International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2021;
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104 Three-dimensional evaluation of tooth preparation forms in paediatric zirconia crowns: An in vitro study
Yong Kwon Chae, Hyeonjong Lee, Hong-Keun Hyun, Hyo-Seol Lee, Sung Chul Choi, Ok Hyung Nam
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2021;
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105 PRILE 2021 guidelines for reporting laboratory studies in Endodontology: A consensus-based development
Venkateshbabu Nagendrababu, Peter E. Murray, Ronald Ordinola-Zapata, Ove A. Peters, Isabela Neves Rôças, José F. Siqueira, Ekta Priya, Jayakumar Jayaraman, Shaju Pulikkotil, Josette Camilleri, Christos Boutsioukis, Giampiero Rossi-Fedele, Paul Michael Howell Dummer
International Endodontic Journal. 2021; 54(9): 1482
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106 Potential effects of pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) on rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review
Aida Malek Mahdavi, Neda Seyedsadjadi, Zeinab Javadivala
International Journal of Clinical Practice. 2021; 75(8)
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107 Effect of a sonic toothbrush on the abrasive dentine wear using toothpastes with different abrasivity values
Blend Hamza, Entoni Uka, Philipp Körner, Thomas Attin, Florian Just Wegehaupt
International Journal of Dental Hygiene. 2021; 19(4): 407
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108 Effect of Computer-Aided Navigation Techniques on the Accuracy of Endodontic Access Cavities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho, Sara Valle Castaño, José María Montiel-Company, Jesús Mena-Álvarez
Biology. 2021; 10(3): 212
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109 Three Dimensional Evaluation of Marginal Microleakage at the Adhesive Interface between Different Fissure Sealants and Enamel: Micro-CT Analysis
Akif Demirel, Ayse Isil Orhan, Firdevs Tulga Öz, Kaan Orhan
Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine. 2021; 0(0)
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110 Evaluation of Dental Surface after De-Bonding Orthodontic Bracket Bonded with a Novel Fluorescent Composite: In Vitro Comparative Study
Marco Farronato, Davide Farronato, Francesco Inchingolo, Laura Grassi, Valentina Lanteri, Cinzia Maspero
Applied Sciences. 2021; 11(14): 6354
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111 Scanning Electron Microscope Image Analysis of Bonding Surfaces following Removal of Composite Resin Restoration Using Er: YAG Laser: In Vitro Study
Dlsoz Omer Babarasul, Bestoon Mohammed Faraj, Fadil Abdullah Kareem, Lavinia C. Ardelean
Scanning. 2021; 2021: 1
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112 Estimation Accuracy of Root Canal Curvatures from Different Dental Diagnostic Imaging Techniques: An In Vitro Experimental Study
Bestoon Mohammed Faraj, Iole Vozza
BioMed Research International. 2021; 2021: 1
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113 Effect of handpiece light and material used in pulp chamber on dentin removal during root canal retreatment
Marcio Alex Barros Gomes, Igor Firmino Pereira Leão, Laís Rani Sales Oliveira, Renata Afonso da Silva Pereira, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira Soares, Carlos José Soares
Brazilian Dental Journal. 2021; 32(5): 87
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114 Effect of Polishing Systems on the Surface Roughness of Nano-Hybrid and Nano-Filling Composite Resins: A Systematic Review
Robinson Jaramillo-Cartagena, Eider J. López-Galeano, Federico Latorre-Correa, Andrés A. Agudelo-Suárez
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115 Reciprocating and Rotatory NiTi Instruments Used for Root Canal Preparation of Primary Teeth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Laura Izabel Lampert Bonzanini, Cleber Paradzinski Cavalheiro, Maitê Munhoz Scherer, Djessica Pedrotti, Paola Arosi Bottezini, Ricardo Abreu da Rosa, Luciano Casagrande, Tathiane Larissa Lenzi
Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada. 2021; 21
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116 Efficacy of Computer-Aided Static Navigation Technique on the Accuracy of Endodontic Microsurgery. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Álvaro Zubizarreta-Macho, César Castillo-Amature, José María Montiel-Company, Jesús Mena-Álvarez
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117 The Effects of Sterilization Procedures on the Cutting Efficiency of Endodontic Instruments: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Mario Dioguardi, Enrica Laneve, Michele Di Cosola, Angela Pia Cazzolla, Diego Sovereto, Riccardo Aiuto, Luigi Laino, Teresa Leanza, Mario Alovisi, Giuseppe Troiano, Lorenzo Lo Muzio
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118 Influence of toothbrush abrasion and surface treatments on the color and translucency of resin infiltrated hybrid ceramics
Nawaf Labban, Mohammad Al Amri, Saleh Alhijji, Sarah Alnafaiy, Afnan Alfouzan, Mounir Iskandar, Sabrina Feitosa
The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics. 2021; 13(1): 1
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119 Root anatomy and canal configuration of human permanent mandibular second molar: A systematic review
PoonamShamkant Joshi, Rajesh Shetty, GargiS Sarode, Vini Mehta, Damini Chakraborty
Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2021; 24(4): 298
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120 Güncel Dezenfektan Yöntemlerinin Kök Kanal Dentin Mikrosertligi Üzerine Etkisi
Balikesir Health Sciences Journal. 2021; 10(3): 405
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121 The effectiveness of the supplementary use of the XP-endo Finisher on bacteria content reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis
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122 The Smear Layer Removal Efficiency of Different Concentrations of EDTA in primary teeth: A SEM Study
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123 Ligament/Tendon Culture under Hypoxic Conditions: A Systematic Review
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124 In Vitro Study on Bone Heating during Drilling of the Implant Site: Material, Design and Wear of the Surgical Drill
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Materials. 2020; 13(8): 1921
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125 Dynamic Navigation in Dental Implantology: The Influence of Surgical Experience on Implant Placement Accuracy and Operating Time. An in Vitro Study
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126 Effect of different citrus sweets on the development of enamel erosion in vitro
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127 Are cloth masks a substitute to medical masks in reducing transmission and contamination? A systematic review
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Brazilian Oral Research. 2020; 34
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128 Mask shortage during epidemics and pandemics: a scoping review of interventions to overcome limited supply
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BMJ Open. 2020; 10(11): e040547
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129 Ethiopian medicinal plants used for their anti-inflammatory, wound healing or anti-infective activities: protocol for systematic literature review and meta-analysis
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BMJ Open Science. 2020; 4(1): e100064
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130 Preoperative Estimation of Endodontic Working Length with Cone-Beam Computed Tomography and Standardized Paralleling Technique in comparison to Its Real Length
Bestoon Mohammed Faraj, Cristiana Corsi
BioMed Research International. 2020; 2020: 1
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131 Comparison between conventional and chemomechanical approaches for the removal of carious dentin: an in vitro study
Tito Marcel Lima Santos, Eduardo Bresciani, Felipe de Souza Matos, Samira Esteves Afonso Camargo, Ana Paula Turrioni Hidalgo, Luciana Monti Lima Rivera, Ítalo de Macedo Bernardino, Luiz Renato Paranhos
Scientific Reports. 2020; 10(1)
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132 In vitro effect of three-dimensional (3D) titanium mini-plate systems used for surgical treatment of condylar fractures on interleukin 1 (IL-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentration in THP-1 macrophages
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Tissue and Cell. 2020; 67: 101404
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133 Influence of disinfection of caries effected dentin with different concentration of silver diamine fluoride, curcumin and Er, Cr:YSGG on adhesive bond strength to resin composite
Ali Alrahlah, Mustafa Naseem, Syeda A. Tanveer, Eisha Abrar, Amynah Charania, Mohammed Q. AlRifaiy, Fahim Vohra
Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy. 2020; 32: 102065
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134 Influence of endodontic irrigants on bond strength between glass-fibre posts and dentin: A systematic review of in vitro studies
Paula Alejandra Baldion, Diego Enrique Betancourt, Diana Marcela Gutierrez, Edgar Orlando Beltran, Gloria Ines Lafaurie, Leandro Chambrone
International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives. 2020; 102: 102685
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
135 Epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of osteoclastogenesis in the pathogenesis of skeletal diseases: A systematic review
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