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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 344-350

Quantitative analysis for detection of toxic elements in various irrigants, their combination (precipitate), and para-chloroaniline: An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry study


Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, Saveetha University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Malli Sureshbabu Nivedhitha
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_95_19

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Introduction: Chlorhexidine (CHX) interacts with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and herbal irrigants such as neem and tulsi to form precipitate which contains para-chloroaniline (PCA). No studies till date have reported about metal elements present in this combination as well as in irrigants. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the precipitate formed on combination of different irrigants, weigh the amount of precipitate formed, and to analyze 35 different metal elements in each irrigant, precipitate formed as well as in PCA. Materials and Methods: Seven irrigants, namely 2% CHX gluconate, 3% NaOCl, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 5% neem, 5% tulsi, 5% Aloe vera, and 5% garlic were taken in different test tubes. Group (1–6): 1 ml of CHX is mixed with 1 ml of 3% NaOCl/17% EDTA/5% neem/5% tulsi/5% A. vera/5% garlic. Group (7–11): 1 ml of 3% NaOCl is mixed with 1 ml of 17% EDTA/5% neem/5% tulsi/5% A. vera/5% garlic. Group (12–15): 1 ml of 17% EDTA is mixed with 1 ml of 5% neem/5% tulsi/5% A. vera/5% garlic. Group (16–18): 1 ml of 5% neem is mixed with 1 ml of 5% tulsi/5% A. vera/5% garlic. Group (19 and 20): 1 ml of 5% tulsi is mixed with 5% A. vera/5% garlic. Group 21 includes 1 ml of 5% A. vera and 5% garlic. Each group is observed for any precipitate formation, and precipitate formed was weighed. Samples such as 2% CHX gluconate, 3% NaOCl, 17% EDTA, 5% neem, 5% tulsi, 5% A. vera, PCA, and precipitate formed in each group were analyzed for 35 different metal elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA and Post hoc Tukey's test for the precipitate formed. Results: Precipitate formation was seen in CHX + NaOCl (reddish-brown), CHX + EDTA (white), CHX + neem (light green), CHX + A. vera (green), CHX + tulsi (dark green), CHX + garlic (beige). ICP-MS analysis showed the presence of International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 carcinogens in NaOCl, CHX, EDTA, and PCA. Conclusion: Carcinogenic metals are undetected in herbal irrigants which is found to be risk free alternatives in near future.


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