Efficacy of denoising and enhancement filters for detection of approximal and occlusal caries on digital intraoral radiographs
Abbas Shokri1, Shahin Kasraei2, Sima Lari3, Majid Mahmoodzadeh4, Amin Khaleghi5, Saeid Musavi6, Vahid Akheshteh3
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental Implant Research Center, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4 Department of Orthodontics, Dental Implant Research Center, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
5 Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
6 Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
Dr. Vahid Akheshteh
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background and Objectives: Image processing and enhancement filters can significantly improve the diagnostic value of digital radiographs. Evidence shows that increasing the contrast and filtering improve the diagnostic accuracy for caries detection. This study sought to assess the diagnostic accuracy of original and enhanced digital radiographs for the detection of approximal and occlusal caries.
Subjects and Methods: In this experimental study, incipient carious lesions were artificially created on 120 proximal and occlusal surfaces of human extracted permanent molar and premolar teeth. After mounting the teeth in wax, digital radiographs were obtained using photostimulable phosphor plates and enhanced by enhancement filters 1, 2, and 3 with/without denoising. Two oral and maxillofacial radiologists blinded to filtering viewed the radiographs and filled out a chart. A definite diagnosis was made by a pathologist by observing the samples under a stereomicroscope (gold standard). Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Interobserver agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. Chi-square test was used to assess the correlation between qualitative variables.
Results: Assessment of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value showed that enhancement filter 2 without denoising was the most efficient and original radiographs (filter free) were the least efficient radiographs for the detection of carious and sound surfaces. Application of filters significantly increased the accuracy of caries detection on digital radiographs. The lowest diagnostic accuracy was noted for the detection of enamel lesions on original radiographs (52%). Enhancement filter 2 plus denoising was the best filter for the detection of these lesions (79.25%). No significant difference was noted among different filters for detection of carious and sound surfaces but enhanced, and original radiographs were significantly different in visualization and detection of caries (P < 0.05).
Conclusion: Application of enhancement filters, particularly enhancement filter 2 with/without denoising, increases the accuracy of caries detection on digital radiographs.