| Abstract|| |
Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the canal transportation and centering ability of three rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) systems (Twisted Files [TF], HyFlex controlled memory [CM], and Wave One [WO]) in curved root canals using computed tomography (CT).
Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted single-rooted teeth having curved root canals with at least 25–35 degrees of curvature were selected. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups of twenty each. After preparation with TF, HyFlex CM, and WO, all teeth were scanned using CT to determine the root canal shape. Pre- and post-instrumentation images were obtained at three levels, 3 mm apical, 9 mm middle, and 15 mm coronal above the apical foramen were compared using CT software. Amount of transportation and centering ability were assessed. The three groups were statistically compared with analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's honestly significant difference test.
Results: Least apical transportation and higher centering ability were seen in HyFlex CM file system in all the three sections followed by TF. WO file system showed maximum transportation.
Conclusions: The canal preparation with HyFlex CM file system showed lesser transportation and better centering ability than TF, WO file system.
Keywords: Canal transportation; centering ability; computed tomography; hyflex controlled memory; Twisted Files; Wave One
|How to cite this article:|
Kishore A, Gurtu A, Bansal R, Singhal A, Mohan S, Mehrotra A. Comparison of canal transportation and centering ability of Twisted Files, HyFlex controlled memory, and Wave One using computed tomography scan: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2017;20:161-5
|How to cite this URL:|
Kishore A, Gurtu A, Bansal R, Singhal A, Mohan S, Mehrotra A. Comparison of canal transportation and centering ability of Twisted Files, HyFlex controlled memory, and Wave One using computed tomography scan: An in vitro study. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Sep 22];20:161-5. Available from: http://www.jcd.org.in/text.asp?2017/20/3/161/218301
| Introduction|| |
Cleaning and shaping of the root canal have been recognized as an important phase in endodontic therapy while maintaining the original canal configuration and canal form. However, in curved canals, these goals are not easily attainable, and root canal instrumentation becomes more difficult because there is a tendency for all preparation techniques and instruments to divert the prepared canal away from its original axis., To remove this error, the introduction of nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments has represented a major breakthrough in root canal preparation by permitting faster instrumentation while maintaining the original canal shape., In rotary endodontics, two types of motions are there, one is continuous rotation and other is reciprocating motion.
Apart from motion, other variants among rotary instruments are their design and alloy characteristics. It has been shown that the design features and methods of manufacturing might significantly affect the clinical performances of NiTi rotary instruments., Following this concept of NiTi technology, various rotary file systems have been introduced, claiming better root canal preparation.
HyFlex controlled memory (CM) rotary instruments are made of CM wire and exhibit the property of CM making the files extremely flexible. Twisted Files (TF) are manufactured by R-phase. Wave One (WO) single file system is manufactured by M-wire alloys, which works on the principle of reciprocating motion. As limited literature was available on canal transportation and centering ability of WO, HyFlex CM, and TF, this study was conducted to compare canal transportation and centering ability of WO, HyFlex CM, and TF using computed tomography (CT) scan.
| Materials and Methods|| |
The present study consisted of 60 single-rooted human teeth with curvatures within 25–35 degrees extracted from patients because of orthodontic and periodontal reasons. Radiographic evaluation was done for all extracted teeth to maintain standardization.
All teeth were cleaned and stored in saline. Canal curvature was measured using Schneider method. The crowns of all teeth were sectioned with a diamond disk, and the canal length was standardized to 18 mm. Access preparation was made on each tooth using a high-speed number two round bur (SS White) with continuous water spray.
A size 10 K-file (Dentsply, Maillefer) was placed into the canal until it was visible at the apical foramen, and the working length was established 0.5 mm short of this length. Roots were embedded into transparent acrylic (DPI, India). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups.
- Group 1: Teeth were prepared using TF according to the manufacturer's recommendations up to 25/0.6
- Group 2: Teeth were prepared using HyFlex CM files up to 25/0.4
- Group 3: Teeth were prepared using WO files up to 25/0.8.
All teeth were scanned by spiral CT (GE Brightspeed Elite) to determine the root canal shape before instrumentation. The sections were 0.6 mm thick from apical to the canal orifice. Three sections from each tooth, the number of the tooth, and its level were archived onto a magnetic optical disk (EDM 650B; Sony Corp, Tokyo, Japan). The first two sections were 3 mm from the apical end of the root (apical level) and 3 mm below the orifice from the coronal level (15 mm from the apex). A further section at the mid-root level (9 mm from the apex) was recorded, dividing the distance between the sections into 2 equal lengths. After initial scans, root canals were instrumented by the same operator using a standardized technique.
In Group 1 (n = 20), the samples were prepared using TF (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, the USA) according to manufacturer's instruction. A size 25/0.08 TF was used to resistance and then withdrawn immediately. If the working length was reached a size 25/0.06, TF was used to the working length.
In Group 2 (n = 20), the samples were prepared using HyFlex CM (ColteneWhaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) according to manufacturer's instructions. A size 25/0.08 HyFlex CM was used as an orifice shaper followed by size 20/0.04 to working length, and the final apical preparation was done by size 25/0.04.
In Group 3 (n = 20), the samples were prepared using WO reciprocating files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). WO primary file with size 25/0.08 was used for the preparation of canals with the preprogrammed motor (X-Smart Plus-DentsplyMaillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), according to manufacturer's instruction.
Consequently, the final apical preparation resulting was standardized to size 25 for all the three groups. For all groups after the use of each file, canals were irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA was used for 1 min followed by 3 ml of a 5.25% NaOCl solution using a 27 gauge needle.
Teeth were scanned before and after instrumentation with their roots being perpendicular to the beam of the CT device (GE Brightspeed Elite). Calculation and comparison of all scans were made at 3, 9, and 15 mm from the apical foramen using a CT scan software (GE AW Volume Share 5).
Evaluation of canal transportation
The amount of canal transportation was determined by measuring the shortest distance from the edge of uninstrumented canal to the periphery of the root (mesial and distal) and then comparing this with the same measurements obtained from the instrumented images. All values were measured by two evaluators, and a mean value was taken.
The following formula was used for the calculation of transportation:
Where a1 is the shortest distance from the mesial edge of the root to the mesial edge of the uninstrumented canal, b1 is the shortest distance from distal edge of the root to the distal edge of the un-instrumented canal, a2 is the shortest distance from the mesial edge of the root to the mesial edge of the instrumented canal, and b2 is the shortest distance from distal edge of the root to the distal edge of the instrumented canal [Figure 1]. According to this formula, a result other than 0 indicates that transportation has occurred in the canal.
|Figure 1: Representation drawing of tooth sections showing how transportation and centering ratios were derived. Uninstrumented image (left): Original canal space represented by dark shaded area. Instrumented image (right): Light shaded area represents canal's shape after instrumentation|
Click here to view
Evaluation of centering ability
The mean centering ratio indicates the ability of the instrument to stay centered in the canal. It was calculated for each section using the following ratio:
(a1–a2)/(b1–b2) or (b1–b2)/(a1–a2).
If these numbers are not equal, the lower figure is considered as the numerator of the ratio. According to this formula, a result of 1 indicates perfect centering.
One-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey's honest significant difference multiple comparisons were conducted to explore a significant difference in mean degree of canal transportation and centering ability between the three shaping procedures. SPSS version 22.0 (IBM, USA) software was used for statistical analysis.
| Results|| |
On comparing, three shaping techniques at various sections for canal transportation and centering ability using one-way ANOVA, there were no statistical significant difference between the three at the apical region (P > 0.05) whereas the difference was statistically significant in middle (P < 0.05) and coronal section (P < 0.05) [Table 1] and [Table 2]. When comparing the average mean degree of canal transportation, it was seen that the canal transportation was smallest in Group B (0.133 ± 0.112) followed by Group A (0.210 ± 0.119) and Group C (0.226 ± 0.135). Group A and C were statistically not significant (P > 0.05, post hoc Tukey test). When comparing the average mean centering ratio, it was seen that the centering ability was highest in Group B (0.604 ± 0.200) followed by Group A (0.472 ± 0.207) and Group C (0.42 ± 0.222). Group A and C were statistically not significant (P > 0.05, post hoc Tukey test) [Graph 1] and [Graph 2].
| Discussion|| |
Curvatures may pose difficulty in root canal instrumentation. Deviations and apical transportation are the most common undesirable accidents that can occur during preparation of curved root canals. By preserving the original canal as far as possible, iatrogenic complications arising from cleaning and shaping can be avoided. Various file systems are available in the market which are based on different NiTi wire technology and claim to preserve the canal anatomy.
The files used in our study are TF, HyFlex CM files, and WO files. The choice of the instruments used for this study took into account several factors that make them different from other systems, such as manufacturing processes and motion TF, a continuous rotation full-sequence NiTi system, having a triangular cross section has been developed by Sybron Endo (Orange, CA) with three unique design features, namely, the R-phase heat treatment, twisting of the metal, and special surface conditioning. These features proved to increase the instrument's resistance to fracture, provide greater flexibility, maintain the original canal center, and minimize canal transportation.
HyFlex CM is continuous rotation rotary instruments, (Coltene Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) with double fluted cross section are made from a new type of NiTi wire, CM wire. It has been subjected to proprietary thermomechanical processing. It has been manufactured by a unique process that controls the material's memory, making the files extremely flexible but without the loss of shape memory typical of other NiTi files.
WO reciprocating files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) are made of a special NiTi alloy called M-wire that is created by an innovative thermal treatment process. This procedure has been developed using super elastic NiTi wire blanks that contain substantial stable martensite under clinical conditions. The benefits of M-wire are increased flexibility of the instruments and resistance to cyclic fatigue. These files have modified convex triangular cross section at the tip end and a convex triangular cross section at coronal end.
To detect the shaping characteristics of these NiTi rotary instruments, canal transportation and centering ability should be evaluated. To investigate the efficiency of instruments and techniques developed for root canal preparation, a number of methods such as radiography, serial sectioning method, CT, cone beam CT, and micro CT, can be used to compare canal shape before and after preparation. Radiography only provides a two-dimensional image, and a cross section of the root canal is impossible to observe. The serial sectioning technique is a commonly used method, but it is more invasive procedure.,
CT imaging techniques have been evaluated as an accurate noninvasive methods for the analysis of canal geometry and efficiency of shaping techniques., This study utilized CT to evaluate canal transportation and centering ability which was in accordance with the protocol employed by Hartmann et al. and Nagaraja and Sreenivasa Murthy.,
The main parameters that were used to evaluate the shaping ability are protecting the curvature of the canal and maintaining a good centering ability. To describe the canal curvature, Schneider method which is the first and still most common method was used in this study.
The results of instrumentation of curved root canals are influenced by several factors, such as flexibility and diameter of the endodontic instruments, instrumentation techniques, location of the foramen, and hardness of the dentin. The flexibility of root canal instruments depends on complex interrelationships among different parameters, such as the cross-sectional design, core diameter, pitch, metallurgical properties, and surface treatment of the instruments. Pongione et al. evaluated flexibility and resistance to cyclic fatigue of endodontic instruments made with different NiTi alloys and concluded that the instruments made from CM wire are more flexible as compared to the other super-elastic NiTi wire technology. According to McSpadden, less canal transportation occurs when the file has greater flexibility, an asymmetrical cross-section design and a radial land. Schäfer et al. maintained that the size of a taper is one of the main factors involved in apical root transportation because an increase in the taper reduces instrument flexibility; therefore, recommended that NiTi files with tapers greater than 4% should not be used to shape the apical area of curved canals.
In this study, the HyFlex CM used was 4% taper which was least among the other file system used and therefore shows least canal transportation and highest centering ability.
| Conclusions|| |
Under the limitations of the present study, it could be concluded that HyFlex CM showed least transportation and remained better centered in the canal compared with TF and WO and it can be safely used in curved canals at full working length with satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape. However, research should continue to further improve instrument design, preparation techniques, and methodologies that are used to evaluate the action of endodontic instruments inside the root canal, aiming at solving the problems inherent to shaping of canals an important and difficult phase of the endodontic therapy.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Schilder H. Cleaning and shaping the root canal. Dent Clin North Am 1974;18:269-96.
Abou-Rass M, Frank AL, Glick DH. The anticurvature filing method to prepare the curved root canal. J Am Dent Assoc 1980;101:792-4.
Weine FS, Kelly RF, Lio PJ. The effect of preparation procedures on original canal shape and on apical foramen shape. J Endod 1975;1:255-62.
Schäfer E. Effects of four instrumentation techniques on curved canals: A comparison study. J Endod 1996;22:685-9.
Hulsmann M, Peters OA, Dummer PM. Mechanical preparation of root canals shaping goals, techniques and means. Endod Topics 2005;10:30-76.
Koch K, Brave D. Real world endo: Design features of rotary files and how they affect clinical performance. Oral Health 2002;92:39-49.
Kuhn WG, Carnes DL Jr., Clement DJ, Walker WA 3rd
. Effect of tip design of nickel-titanium and stainless steel files on root canal preparation. J Endod 1997;23:735-8.
Zhao D, Shen Y, Peng B, Haapasalo M. Micro-computed tomography evaluation of the preparation of mesiobuccal root canals in maxillary first molars with Hyflex CM, twisted files, and K3 instruments. J Endod 2013;39:385-8.
Marzouk AM, Ghoneim AG. Computed tomographic evaluation of canal shape instrumented by different kinematics rotary nickel-titanium systems. J Endod 2013;39:906-9.
Schneider SW. A comparison of canal preparations in straight and curved root canals. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1971;32:271-5.
Jain N, Tushar S. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited. Indian J Dent Res 2008;19:267-71.
] [Full text]
Guelzow A, Stamm O, Martus P, Kielbassa AM. Comparative study of six rotary nickel-titanium systems and hand instrumentation for root canal preparation. Int Endod J 2005;38:743-52.
Kumar BS, Pattanshetty S, Prasad M, Soni S, Pattanshetty KS, Prasad S. An in-vitro
evaluation of canal transportation and centering ability of two rotary Nickel Titanium systems (Twisted Files and Hyflex files) with conventional stainless Steel hand K-flexofiles by using Spiral Computed Tomography. J Int Oral Health 2013;5:108-15.
Lim YJ, Park SJ, Kim HC, Min KS. Comparison of the centering ability of Wave. One and Reciproc nickel-titanium instruments in simulated curved canals. Restor Dent Endod 2013;38:21-5.
Gambill JM, Alder M, del Rio CE. Comparison of nickel-titanium and stainless steel hand-file instrumentation using computed tomography. J Endod 1996;22:369-75.
Dowker P, Davis GR, Elliot JC. X-ray micro-tomography: Non destructive three dimensional imaging for in vitro
endodontic studies. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 1997;83:510-6.
Bramante CM, Berbert A, Borges RP. A methodology for evaluation of root canal instrumentation. J Endod 1987;13:243-5.
Peters OA, Laib A, Göhring TN, Barbakow F. Changes in root canal geometry after preparation assessed by high-resolution computed tomography. J Endod 2001;27:1-6.
Paqué F, Ganahl D, Peters OA. Effects of root canal preparation on apical geometry assessed by micro-computed tomography. J Endod 2009;35:1056-9.
Hartmann MS, Barletta FB, Camargo Fontanella VR, Vanni JR. Canal transportation after root canal instrumentation: A comparative study with computed tomography. J Endod 2007;33:962-5.
Nagaraja S, Sreenivasa Murthy BV. CT evaluation of canal preparation using rotary and hand NI-TI instruments: An in vitro
study. J Conserv Dent 2010;13:16-22.
] [Full text]
Schäfer E, Dzepina A, Danesh G. Bending properties of rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2003;96:757-63.
Pongione G, Pompa G, Milana V, Di Carlo S, Giansiracusa A, Nicolini E, et al.
Flexibility and resistance to cyclic fatigue of endodontic instruments made with different nickel-titanium alloys: A comparative test. Ann Stomatol (Roma) 2012;3:119-22.
McSpadden JT. Mastering Endodontic Instrumentation. Chattanooga, TN, USA: Cloudland Institute; 2007.
Department of Conservative and Endodontics, Institute of Dental Sciences,
Pilibhit Bypass Road, Bareilly - 243 001, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
[Table 1], [Table 2]