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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 471-473
Comparative evaluation of tensile strength of Gutta-percha cones with a herbal disinfectant


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Vishnu Dental College, Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Sri Sai College of Dental Surgery, Vikarabad, Telangana, India
3 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, GSL Dental College, Rajamundry, Andhra Pradesh, India

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Date of Submission19-Jun-2015
Date of Decision04-Aug-2015
Date of Acceptance12-Sep-2015
Date of Web Publication2-Nov-2015
 

   Abstract 

Aim: To evaluate and compare the tensile strength values and influence of taper on the tensile strength of Gutta-percha (GP) cones after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite (SH) and Aloe vera gel (AV).
Materials and Methods: Sixty GP cones of size 110, 2% taper, 60 GP cones F3 ProTaper, and 60 GP of size 30, 6% taper were obtained from sealed packs as three different groups. Experimental groups were disinfected with 5.25% SH and 90% AV gel except the control group. Tensile strengths of GP were measured using the universal testing machine.
Results: The mean tensile strength values for Group IA, IIA and IIIA are 11.8 MPa, 8.69 MPa, and 9.24 MPa, respectively. Results were subjected to statistical analysis one-way analysis of variance test and Tukey post-hoc test. 5.25% SH solutions decreased the tensile strength of GP cones whereas with 90% AV gel it was not significantly altered.
Conclusion: Ninety percent Aloe vera gel as a disinfectant does not alter the tensile strength of GP cones

Keywords: Aloe vera; disinfection; Gutta-percha cones; tensile strength; sodium hypochlorite

How to cite this article:
Mahali RR, Dola B, Tanikonda R, Peddireddi S. Comparative evaluation of tensile strength of Gutta-percha cones with a herbal disinfectant. J Conserv Dent 2015;18:471-3

How to cite this URL:
Mahali RR, Dola B, Tanikonda R, Peddireddi S. Comparative evaluation of tensile strength of Gutta-percha cones with a herbal disinfectant. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Sep 19];18:471-3. Available from: http://www.jcd.org.in/text.asp?2015/18/6/471/168813

   Introduction Top


The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to maintain a complete aseptic condition in root canal treatment, right from access opening to the permanent coronal restoration of the tooth. Eliminating or decreasing the microbial count is of considerable importance for the success of endodontic treatment.

Several studies revealed that the selection of an ideal disinfectant for Gutta-percha (GP) cones is very important, because the disinfectant may affect the mechanical properties and surface texture of GP cones, thereby the outcome of obturation.

Current obturation techniques involve the use of several chemicals for GP cone disinfection. Among them, sodium hypochlorite (SH) was proved to be an effective disinfectant. [1],[2],[3] SH is a strong oxidizing agent and effective decontaminant that causes extreme topographic alterations and aggressive deterioration [4] in the cones, which inturn results in decrease of adhesion or bond strength of GP cones to endodontic sealer. [5] Moreover, there is decrease in tensile strength of GP cones and formation of cuboidal shaped crystals on the surface of GP with 5.25% SH, which could affect the sealing ability, reinforcement within the root canal, and outcome of endodontic treatment. [9] Therefore an effective, but safer chemical is desirable for disinfecting GP cones.

Aloe vera gel (AV) is bacteriostatic against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and  Salmonella More Details paratyphi and found to be an effective medium in decontaminating GP cones. [6],[8] The purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the effect of 90% AV gel and 5.25% SH on the tensile strength of GP cones.


   Materials and Methods Top


Sixty GP cones of size 110, 2% (Dentsply, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were included under Group I, 60 F3 ProTaper GP (Dentsply, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were included under Group II and 60 GP of size 30, 6% (DIADENT, Netherlands, Korea) were included under Group III. Each group was divided into three sub-groups (A, B, and C) of 20 each [Table 1].
Table 1: Experimental groups and sub-groups


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GP cones were opened under sterile conditions from the sealed packets and divided in to three sub-groups of 20 cones each. Group IA was disinfected with 20 ml of 5.25% SH (Prime Dental, Thane, India) in a  Petri dish More Details for 1 min, after which they were transferred individually and rinsed in 5 ml of distilled water for 1 min and allowed to dry in sterile petri dishes containing sterile filter paper pads. Similarly, Group IB was disinfected with 90% AV gel (Nature's Herbs, American Fork, USA) for 1 min. Accordingly II and III groups were sterilized. Group C was not disinfected and taken as a control group.

The tensile strength of all GP cones after disinfection was measured using computer controlled universal testing machine. Each cone was standardized to 14 mm length by cutting the cone from the base, 2 mm from each side of the cone was inserted into either ends of the holders of universal testing machine and load was applied at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min, until maximum tensile failure was obtained and values were recorded. The data was compared for differences using one-way analysis of variance, followed by multiple comparisons using Tukey post-hoc test.


   Results Top


Results revealed that 5.25% SH would decrease the tensile strength of GP cones after 1 min of disinfection, which had a significant difference from the control group (C) and 90% AV (B) group. The results are considered as statistically significant at P ≤ 0.05. This was shown in [Table 2] and [Table 3]. 5.25% of SH decreases tensile strength and left a cuboidal crystal on the surface of GP cone after 1 min of immersion, conversely AV would not affect properties of GP cone.
Table 2: Comparison of mean tensile strength values of GP cones after disinfection with 5.25% SH and 90% AV gel


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Table 3: Tukey Post-hoc test for multiple comparisons


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   Discussion Top


The importance of GP decontamination to prevent any bacterial contamination of the root canal before obturation is now a widely recognized step in endodontic practice. [7] SH at 5.25% has been found to be rapid, reliable effective in disinfecting GP cones because of its strong antibacterial, oxidizing, and sporicidal activity. [9] AV has been used for the treatment of peptic ulcers and in cosmetics. Its antimicrobial activity is due to p-coumaric acid, ascorbic and cinnamic acid. Another major advantage is that AV gel has been found to be effective in decontaminating GP cones within 1 min. [8]

GP cone is one of the most popular materials used for obturating root canal space. Although GP cones are an essential factor within the aseptic chain, often little attention is paid to the microbiological cleanliness of the cones selected prior to their use in filling the canal. As root canal filling cones must remain in the root canal over a long period of time, they must be able to withstand rigorous sterilization procedures. Studies on the effects of disinfection on the mechanical properties and surface texture of GP cones have been reported, [10],[11],[12],[13],[14] but they are limited and many remain unclear. The mechanical properties of GP cone were indicative of a partially crystalline polymeric material and found to obey the Hook's law. [15],[16] Several studies demonstrated that tensile strength was correlated to GP component of GP cone while modulus of elasticity and percentage of elongation were determined to be related to zinc oxide component of GP cones, and flexibility of the cone affected by wax and resin components of GP cone. [15],[16] As SH is known to be a strong oxidizing agent and has the potential to reduce the chemical stability of chain polymer, resin, and waxes of GP cones. Such, a chemical instability would adversely affect the mechanical properties of a GP cone. [10],[11],[12],[13] Reduction in polymer component in GP cone by 5.25% SH might lead to a decrease in tensile strength. Furthermore, leaves multiple pitting on the surface of GP cones which might decrease adhesion or bond strength of GP cones to the endodontic sealer. Hence, all these thought to adversely affect sealing ability and reinforcement in the root canal, which were the main causes of endodontic failure.

The rationale behind selecting different size and taper of GP is to know whether there is any influence of taper of GP on tensile strengths. According to weine, minimum apical preparation should be till 30 size so master apical file size 30 was chosen. To simulate this, ProTaper F3 (Group II) and 30 size GP (Group III) were selected. To know the influence of taper, Group II with variable taper and Group III with 6% GP were selected. 110 size GP has been taken as a reference size according to the study done by Ismail et al. [9]

It is found in this study that the mean tensile strength values for Group IA, IIA and IIIA are 11.8 MPa, 8.69 MPa and 9.24 MPa, respectively. The mean tensile strength of experimental groups treated with 5.25% SH were significantly decreased when compared with control group (P < 0.05) whereas with 90% AV gel the value was not significantly changed. There was no statistical difference between tensile strength values of the control group and 90% AV gel group (P > 0.05). These results were in accordance with studies done by Ismail et al. [9] Irrespective of taper and size of the GP cones, the control group showed the highest tensile strength. Irrespective of taper and size of the GP cones, there was a significant reduction in tensile strength of GP cones upon disinfection with 5.25% SH. Irrespective of taper and size of GP cones, there was no significant difference in the tensile strength of GP cones in the control group and tensile strength of GP cones disinfected with 90% AV gel.


   Conclusion Top


Within the limitations of the study, it is concluded that 90% AV is considered as safer GP disinfectant as it does not alter the tensile strength and topography of GP, which eventually will lead to enhanced sealing ability and reinforcement of the root canal. To establish AV as a GP disinfectant, further research has to be done exclusively on surface topography, modulus of elasticity and percentage elongation of GP cones on a larger sample size.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
   References Top

1.
Taha MY, Al-Sabawi NA, Shehab EY. Rapid decontamination of Gutta-percha cone using different chemical agents. Al-Rafidain Dent J 2010;1:30-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Gomes BP, Vianna ME, Matsumoto CU, Rossi Vde P, Zaia AA, Ferraz CC, et al. Disinfection of Gutta-percha cones with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2005;100:512-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Redmerski R, Bulla JR, Morena T, Garcia LB, Cardosa CL. Disinfection of Gutta-percha cones with chlorhexidine. Braz J Microbiol 2007;38:649-55.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Tilakchand M, Naik B, Shetty AS. A comparative evaluation of the effect of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine on the surface texture of Gutta-percha and resilon cones using atomic force microscope. J Conserv Dent 2014;17:18.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
5.
Redmerski R, Bulla JR, Moreno T, Garcia LB, Cardoso CL. Disinfection of Gutta-percha cones with chlorhexidine. Braz J Microbiol 2007;38:649-55.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Shahzad K, Ahmad R, Nawaz S, Salman S, Iqbal Z. Comparative antimicrobial activity of Aloe vera gel on microorganisms of public health significance. Pharmacologyonline 2009;1:416-23.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Taqa AA, Suliman RT, Shehab EY. Evaluation of antimicrobial effect for chlorhexidine incorporated Gutta-percha using FTIR spectroscopy. Int J Enhanc Res Sci Technol Eng 2014;3:313-8.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Athiban PP, Borthakur BJ, Ganesan S, Swathika B. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and its effectiveness in decontaminating Gutta-percha cones. J Conserv Dent 2012;15:246-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
9.
Ismail SA, Al-Sabawi NA, Al-Askary RA. Effect of different disinfectant solutions on the properties of Gutta-percha cones. Tikrit J Dent Sci 2012;2:169-74.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Pang NS, Jung IY, Bae KS, Baek SH, Lee WC, Kum KY. Effects of short-term chemical disinfection of Gutta-percha cones: Identification of affected microbes and alterations in surface texture and physical properties. J Endod 2007;33:594-8.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Zamany AA. Do SH solutions affect Gutta-percha cones. J Endod 2006;34:567-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Valois CR, Silva LP, Azevedo RB. Effects of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite on Gutta-percha cones studied by atomic force microscopy. Int Endod J 2005;38:425-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Valois CR, Silva LP, Azevedo RB. Structural effects of sodium hypochlorite solutions on Gutta-percha cones: Atomic force microscopy study. J Endod 2005;31:749-51.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Short RD, Dorn SO, Kuttler S. The crystallization of sodium hypochlorite on Gutta-percha cones after the rapid-sterilization technique: An SEM study. J Endod 2003;29:670-3.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Williams C, Loushine RJ, Weller N, Pashley DH, Tay FR. A comparison of cohesive strength and stiffness of resilon and Gutta-percha. Int Endod J 2006;32:553-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Suh KS, Moon TJ, Lee CR, Hah JH, Noh JS. Mechanical properties of highly loaded Gutta-percha/ZnO composite. Polymer (Korea) 1993;2:168-75.  Back to cited text no. 16
    

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Correspondence Address:
Dr. Binoy Dola
Flat No G1, Block 2, Subba Laxmi Apartment, Green Hills Colony, Road No 2, Saroornagar, Hyderabad - 500 035, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.168813

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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]



 

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