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Table of Contents   
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 406-408
Cytotoxicity evaluation of a new fast set highly viscous conventional glass ionomer cement with L929 fibroblast cell line


Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

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Date of Submission23-Jan-2011
Date of Decision25-Feb-2011
Date of Acceptance07-Mar-2011
Date of Web Publication5-Nov-2011
 

   Abstract 

Aim : This study aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of a new fast set highly viscous conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) with L929 fibroblasts.
Materials and Methods : The cement capsule was mixed and introduced into a paraffin wax mould. After setting, the cement was incubated in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. Six replicates of the material extract were added to the culture medium in 96-well plates. L929 mouse fibroblast cells were added into the wells and then incubated for 48 h. Dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide test was performed for cytotoxicity evaluation.
Results : The results showed that this GIC brand did not yield a half-maximal inhibitory concentration value, IC50, as the cell viability was above 50% at all concentrations. Cell viability over 90% was observed at the concentrations of 3.125 and 1.5625 mg/ml. Maximum concentration of the material showed cell viability of 59.4%.
Conclusions : This new fast set highly viscous conventional GIC showed low cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast cells, and it can be suggested as a substitute for dental cements exhibiting a long setting time.

Keywords: Cell viability; dental cements; fibroblast cells; glass ionomer cement

How to cite this article:
Ahmed HM, Omar NS, Luddin N, Saini R, Saini D. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a new fast set highly viscous conventional glass ionomer cement with L929 fibroblast cell line. J Conserv Dent 2011;14:406-8

How to cite this URL:
Ahmed HM, Omar NS, Luddin N, Saini R, Saini D. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a new fast set highly viscous conventional glass ionomer cement with L929 fibroblast cell line. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Oct 18];14:406-8. Available from: http://www.jcd.org.in/text.asp?2011/14/4/406/87212

   Introduction Top


Since 1960, the idea of adhesion to dental hard tissues resulted in the invention of many dental cements including glass ionomer cements (GICs). [1] GIC is basically a product of acid base reaction between ion leachable glass and aqueous solution of polyacrylic acid. [2] This cement exhibits several desirable properties including good biocompatibility, physicochemical bonding to enamel and dentin, low coefficient of thermal expansion and anticariogenic activity. [3],[4] Following many improvements, the GICs became one of the most successful dental cements in clinical dentistry. [4]

Beside all the developments and evolution of resin-modified GICs and compomers, conventional GICs have been subjected to many substantial modifications in their composition and powder/liquid ratio in order to overcome their compromised physical and mechanical properties. [5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12] These improved formulations, provided with fast set applications, would significantly reduce the probability of moisture contamination. In addition, the chair time will be reduced thus making the material more acceptable for both the patient and the clinician. [13]

Fast set, highly viscous conventional GICs were also introduced to extend the indication for occlusal restorations, which require high-strength materials. Even though they did not show an improvement in the mechanical and wear properties in the initial stages, the long term wear resistance and hardness was found to be high, and was suggested to compete with that of composite resins. [14],[15]

As a result of this considerable heterogeneity in the composition of new conventional GICs, it is essential to evaluate their cytotoxic activity and host tissue response. [10],[16] This preliminary study aims to investigate the cytotoxicity of a new fast set highly viscous radiopaque conventional GIC with the L929 mouse fibroblast cell line.


   Materials and Methods Top


A Paraffin wax mould, with a diameter 1.5 cm and depth 2 mm, supported by sterile stainless steel mould was prepared as mentioned by Min et al. [17] (with modification) [Figure 1]a. The fast set, highly viscous radiopaque conventional glass ionomer capsule (Ionofil Molar AC Quick, Voco, Germany) was activated and mixed immediately in a capsule mixer for 10 s as recommended by the manufacturer. The mix was then introduced into the paraffin wax mould [Figure 1]b.
Figure 1: (a) Paraffin wax mould supported by sterile stainless steel mould. (b) Glass ionomer cement after application. (c) Sterilization of the set cement by ultraviolet radiation

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After setting of the cement (setting time 2.5 min), it was sterilized using ultraviolet radiation for 30 min [Figure 1]c. The cement was weighed and then introduced into sterile glass bottles containing Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (200 mg/ml). Following this, it was incubated for 72 h at 37 o C.

After incubation, the material extract was passed through a filter (20 μm) into another sterile glass bottle. Six replicates of the material extract were added into 96-well plate. L929 mouse fibroblast cell culture was applied into the wells containing full and diluted concentrations of the material extract, and then incubated for 48 h at 37 o C and 5% CO 2 . Dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium bromide was added to each well for 4 h. The wells were evacuated and Dimethyl sulphoxide was then introduced into each well and the optical density (wavelength 570 nm) was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reader.


   Results Top


The results showed that this GIC brand did not yield a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) as the cell viability was above 50% at all concentrations [Figure 2]. Cell viability over 90% was observed at the concentrations of 3.125 and 1.5625 mg/ml. At the concentration of 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/ml, the cell viability was above 80%. At the concentration 50 mg/ml, the cell viability was 68%. Maximum concentration of the material showed cell viability of 59.4%.
Figure 2: Cell viability at different concentrations of the material

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   Discussion Top


GIC is widely used in clinical dentistry as a luting cement, cavity base or liner and for the restoration of primary and permanent teeth. [18] In endodontic treatment, it can be used for root end filling, repair of perforation areas, filling of resorption defects and temporary filling during endodontic therapy. [4] Despite these wide clinical indications, the imperfect physical and mechanical properties of conventional GIC were the main cause for the resistance to its adoption in wider clinical applications. [3],[4]

Resin-modified GICs were introduced in the late 1980s as an attempt to improve the physical and mechanical properties while maintaining the basic features of the conventional GIC. [4],[7] However, many studies found them to be cytotoxic. [19],[20] Furthermore, they also showed strong genotoxic effects. [21] These unfavorable properties are mainly attributed to their ability to release the monomer HEMA (2 hydroxethyl methacrylate) which can lead to a variety of adverse biological effects. [20]

The low cytotoxic activity observed in this fast set, highly viscous conventional GIC brand is consistent with other conventional types that show good biocompatibility due to their rapid neutralization, release of generally benign ions from the set cement and low setting exothermic reaction. [20]

Some clinical situations, like root end surgery, warrant the use of fast set dental cement, as this will prevent its solubility, disintegration and dislodgement thus, maintaining its dimensional stability. [22],[23] The presence of these fast set conventional GICs in pre-proportioned, mechanically mixed capsules will provide an easier procedure with a consistent mix, which can be effectively applied to the area of interest.

The concurrent existence of low cytotoxicity along with favorable physical properties including simpler handling properties, suitable working and setting time, is highly advantageous when the material is going to be introduced in areas where the moisture is difficult to control, and it will also be in direct contact with vital tissues, like the periapical tissues. [24] This would appreciably reduce the host tissue response and maintain the dimensional stability of the cement.


   Conclusions Top


The new fast set highly viscous conventional GIC showed low cytotoxicity to mouse fibroblast cells and, in some clinical situations, it can be suggested as a substitute for dental cements exhibiting long setting time

 
   References Top

1.Smith DC. Development of glass-ionomer cement systems. Biomaterials 1998;19:467-78.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
2.Wilson AD, Kent BE. The glass-ionomer cement, a new translucent dental filling material. J Appl Chem Biotechnol 1971;21:313.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Naasan MA, Watson TF. Conventional glass ionomers as posterior restorations. A status report for the American Journal of Dentistry. Am J Dent 1998;11:36-45.   Back to cited text no. 3
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4. De Bruyne MA, De Moor RJ. The use of glass ionomer cements in both conventional and surgical endodontics. Int Endod J 2004;37:91-104.  Back to cited text no. 4
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5.Guggenberger R, May R, Stefan KP. New trends in glass-ionomer chemistry. Biomaterials 1998;19:479-83.  Back to cited text no. 5
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6.Saito S, Tosaki S, Hirota K. Characteristics of Glass-Ionomer cements. In: Davidson CL, Mjör IA, editors. Advances in glass ionomer cements. 1st ed. Illinois: Quintessence Publishing Co. Inc; 1999. p. 15- 50.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Culberston BM. Glass-ionomer dental restoratives. Prog Polym Sci 2001;26:577-604.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Davidson CL. Advances in glass-ionomer cements. J Appl Oral Sci 2006;14 Suppl:3-9.  Back to cited text no. 8
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9.Moshaverinia A, Ansari S, Movasaghi Z, Billington RW, Darr JA, Rehman IU. Modification of conventional glass-ionomer cements with N-vinylpyrrolidone containing polyacids, nano-hydroxy and fluoroapatite to improve mechanical properties. Dent Mater 2008;24:1381-90.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.Moshaverinia A, Roohpour N, Ansari S, Moshaverinia M, Schricker S, Darr JA, et al. Effects of N-vinylpyrrolidone containing polyelectrolytes on surface properties of conventional glass-ionomer cements. Dent Mater 2009;25:1240-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Hammouda IM. Reinforcement of conventional glass-ionomer restorative material with short glass fibers. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2009;2:73- 81.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Alireza M, Nima R, Winston WLC, Scott RS. A review of powder modifications in conventional glass-ionomer dental cements. J Mater Chem 2011;21:1319-28.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Towler MR, Bushby AJ, Billington RW, Hill RG. A preliminary comparison of the mechanical properties of chemically cured and ultrasonically cured glass ionomer cements, using nano-indentation techniques. Biomaterials 2001;22:1401-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.Yap AU, Pek YS, Cheang P. Physico-mechanical properties of a fast-set highly viscous GIC restorative. J Oral Rehabil 2003;30:1-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
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15.van Duinen RN, Kleverlaan CJ, de Gee AJ, Werner A, Feilzer AJ. Early and long-term wear of 'fast-set' conventional glass-ionomer cements. Dent Mater 2005;21:716-20.  Back to cited text no. 15
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16.Six N, Lasfargues JJ, Goldberg M. In vivo study of the pulp reaction to Fuji IX, a glass ionomer cement. J Dent 2000;28:413-22.  Back to cited text no. 16
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17.Min KS, Lee SI, Lee Y, Kim EC. Effect of radiopaque Portland cement on mineralization in human dental pulp cells. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:e82-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
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18.Berg JH. Glass ionomer cements. Pediatr Dent 2002;24:430-8.  Back to cited text no. 18
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19.Costa CA, Giro EM, do Nascimento AB, Teixeira HM, Hebling J. Short-term evaluation of the pulpo-dentin complex response to a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and a bonding agent applied in deep cavities. Dent Mater 2003;19:739-46.  Back to cited text no. 19
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20.Nicholson JW, Czarnecka B. The biocompatibility of resin-modified glass-ionomer cements for dentistry. Dent Mater 2008;24:1702-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
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21.Heil J, Reifferscheid G, Waldmann P, Leyhausen G, Geurtsen W. Genotoxicity of dental materials. Mutat Res 1996;368:181-94.  Back to cited text no. 21
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22.Kogan P, He J, Glickman GN, Watanabe I. The effects of various additives on setting properties of MTA. J Endod 2006;32:569-72.  Back to cited text no. 22
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23.Bortoluzzi EA, Broon NJ, Bramante CM, Consolaro A, Garcia RB, de Moraes IG, et al. Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with or without Calcium Chloride in Pulpotomy. J Endod 2008;34:172-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
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24.Stropko JJ, Doyon GE, Gutmann JL. Root-end management: Resection, cavity preparation, and material placement. Endod Top 2005;11:131-51.  Back to cited text no. 24
    

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Correspondence Address:
Hany Mohamed Aly Ahmed
Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150 Kelantan
Malaysia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.87212

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