Journal of Conservative Dentistry
Home About us Editorial Board Instructions Submission Subscribe Advertise Contact e-Alerts Login 
Users Online: 280
Print this page  Email this page Bookmark this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size
 


 
Table of Contents   
CASE REPORT  
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 196-198
Spiral computed tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with three distal canals


1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College, Srinagar, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Sheri Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir, India

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission08-Dec-2010
Date of Decision30-Jan-2011
Date of Acceptance05-Feb-2011
Date of Web Publication7-Jul-2011
 

   Abstract 

The use of spiral computed tomography serves as a boon in endodontic diagnosis of complex anatomic variations. The present case demonstrates the spiral tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with 5 canals (2 mesial and 3 distal canals), which is a very rare anatomic variant. Such anatomic variations should be taken into account in day to day endodontic practice to ensure a high degree of clinical success.

Keywords: Anatomic variation; endodontic treatment; mandibular first molar

How to cite this article:
Mushtaq M, Farooq R, Rashid A, Robbani I. Spiral computed tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with three distal canals. J Conserv Dent 2011;14:196-8

How to cite this URL:
Mushtaq M, Farooq R, Rashid A, Robbani I. Spiral computed tomographic evaluation and endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with three distal canals. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Mar 25];14:196-8. Available from: http://www.jcd.org.in/text.asp?2011/14/2/196/82602

   Introduction Top


Endodontic therapy requires a thorough knowledge of root canal morphology to adequately shape and clean the canal system. Proper care and attention should be directed in identifying and negotiating extra roots and canals.

In a radiographic study of extracted teeth Goel et al[1] reported mandibular first molars had 3 mesial canals in 13.3% of specimens, 4 mesial canals in 3.3% of specimens, and 3 distal canals in 1.7% of specimens. Furthermore, their study showed that 1 apical foramen was present in 30%, 2 in 60%, 3 in 6.7%, and 4 in 3.3% of the cases. Previous reports have described the mandibular first molar with 3 mesial canals, [2],[3] but few have reported a mandibular first molar with more than two distal canals. [4] The presence of 3 canals in the distal root of mandibular first molar has been reported to have an incidence of 0.2%-3%. [4]

The scope of spiral computed tomography (SCT) in endodontic diagnosis is becoming broader day by day. Spiral CT provides a better resolution as compared with other scanning methods, such as cone beam CT. Chandra et al[5] successfully employed SCT in managing the middle distal canal in the mandibular first molar.

The present case report describes the SCT evaluation and endodontic treatment of a mandibular first molar with 5 canals (2 mesial and 3 distal canals).


   Case Report Top


A 60-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics with a complaint of pain in the mandibular right first molar. On clinical oral examination, mandibular right first molar of the patient had a deep carious lesion. Digital radiograph (Schick Technologies, NY, USA) of mandibular right first molar revealed the presence of 2 distinct roots. Radiograph taken from a mesial angulation revealed the presence of multiple canals in the distal root. In order to assess the complex root canal anatomy, informed consent was taken from the patient and a spiral CT of the mandibular right first molar was planned. SCT evaluation (64 slice Multi-detector row CT, Siemens, USA) of the involved tooth revealed the presence of 3 distal canals and 2 mesial canals [Figure 1]a,b, and c. The dosage was kept within the maximum permissible limits as defined for the general population. The SCT provided a resolution of 0.6 mm, which is not obtainable with other scanning methods, such as cone beam CT.
Figure 1: (a) Preoperative diagnostic radiograph; (b) diagnostic radiograph taken from a mesial angulation; and (c) spiral CT scan of the involved tooth showing the presence of 3 distal and 2 mesial canals

Click here to view


Endodontic treatment of the involved tooth was decided and access cavity preparation was done using access opening bur kit (Dentsply Maillefer, Switzerland) under rubber dam isolation. Four distinct canal orifices (mesiobuccal, mesiolingual, distobuccal, and distolingual) were located and negotiated using K-Flex file ISO 15 (Dentsply Maillefer) at the first instant. Careful exploration of the pulp chamber was done using an endodontic explorer (DG16), and a third distal canal was explored between the distobuccal and distolingual canal orifices. The middle distal canal joined the distolingual canal in the apical third of the root. Working length measurement was done using Elements diagnostic apex locater (SybronEndo, USA,) and it was confirmed by a digital radiograph (Schick Technologies, NY, USA) [Figure 2]a, b, and c. Root canal shaping was done using K-Flex hand files (Dentsply) and obturation was done with Resilon and Epiphany Obturation System (SybronEndo, USA). The access cavity was sealed with a temporary restorative material. The patient was recalled for the permanent restoration. Radiographic evaluation at 6-month recall revealed a healthy periodontium [Figure 3]a, b.
Figure 2: (a) Access opening photograph showing the clinical view of canal orifices; (b) working length determination confirmatory radiograph; and (c) master cone selection radiograph

Click here to view
Figure 3: (a) Postoperative obturation radiograph; and (b) radiograph at 6-month recall

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Clinicians routinely misinterpret that a given tooth will contain a predetermined number of roots and canals. However, the literature review shows a greater amount of variation in the number of roots and canals.

The presence of multiple canals in the mandibular first molar is most of the time seen in the mesial root, [2],[3] but a few cases have reported a mandibular first molar with more than 2 distal canals. [4] The canals may be independent throughout their course in the root with a separate apical foramen or they may join either of the two main canals.

An accurate diagnosis of extra roots/canals can avoid a lot of procedural errors or a missed canal during root canal treatment. Sophisticated diagnostic aids, such as SCT can be an invaluable tool in diagnosis of such anatomic variations. The main benefit in employing spiral CT over conventional radiography is that it allows the clinician to observe at multiple slices of the tooth roots and their canal systems. [6]

Since its application in endodontics in 1990, CT scanning has become very popular with the clinicians in the past few years. The successful use of spiral CT in the assessment of complex endodontic cases has been reported by various authors. Chandra et al[ 5] in a case report did successful endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with 3 distal canals confirmed with the aid of SCT. [5]


   Conclusions Top


Clinicians should have a thorough knowledge of the several anatomic variations seen in case of mandibular first molars. An accurate diagnosis of an extra root/canal before treatment is important to facilitate the endodontic procedure, and to avoid missed canals. The use of SCT in endodontic diagnosis serves as an asset in diagnosing complex root canal anatomies to achieve a high degree of success.

 
   References Top

1.Goel NK, Gill KS, Taneja JR. Study of root canals configuration in mandibular first permanent molar. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent 1991;8:12-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
2.Ricucci D. Three independent mesial canals in the mesial root of a mandibular first molar. Endod Dent Traumatol 1997;13:47-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Baugh D, Wallace J. Middle mesial canal of the mandibular first molar: A case report and literature review. J Endod 2004;30:185-6.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
4.Kottoor J, Sudha R, Velmurugan N. Middle distal canal of the mandibular first molar: A case report and literature review. Int Endod J 2010;43:714- 22.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
5.Chandra SS, Rajasekaran M, Shankar P, Indira R. Endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with three distal canals confirmed with the aid of spiral computerized tomography: A case report. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009;108:e77- 81.   Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
6.Patel S, Dawood A, Whaites E, Ford PT. New dimensions in endodontic imaging: Part 1. Conventional and alternative radiographic systems. Int Endod J 2009;42:447-62.  Back to cited text no. 6
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Mubashir Mushtaq
Room no. 117, Post-graduate Clinic, Post-graduate Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, 190010
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.82602

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]

This article has been cited by
1 Two-rooted maxillary first molars with two canals: A case series
Shakouie, S. and Mokhtari, H. and Ghasemi, N. and Gholizadeh, S.
Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2013; 8(1): 29-32
[Pubmed]
2 Managing a mandibular second premolar with three-canal and taurodontism: A case report
Mokhtari, H. and Niknami, M. and Zand, V.
Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2013; 8(1): 25-28
[Pubmed]
3 A case report of maxillary second molar with two palatal root canals and a furcal enamel pearl
Shojaeian, S. and Ghoddusi, J. and Hajian, S.
Iranian Endodontic Journal. 2013; 8(1): 37-39
[Pubmed]
4 Mandibular first molar with three distal canals
Jain, S.
Journal of Conservative Dentistry. 2011; 14(4): 438-439
[Pubmed]



 

Top
 
 
 
  Search
 
 
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  
 


    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
   Conclusions
    References
    Article Figures

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2189    
    Printed102    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded190    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 4    

Recommend this journal