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Year : 2007  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 119-121
Evaluation of the pulp chamber morphological measurements in maxillary first premolar in Indian population - an in-vitro study


Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Alapakkam Main Road, Maduravoyal, Chennai 600 095, India

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   Abstract 

The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the pulp chamber morphological measurements and also to establish the relationship of cemento enamel junction (CEJ) to the roof of the pulp chamber of maxillary first premolars in Indian population. One hundred extracted human maxillary first premolars were used. Each premolar tooth was radiographed by RVG. Measurements were made by using the grid option in RVG. Results were as follows (Mean SD in mm): distance from floor of the pulp chamber to furcation 1.79 0.8mm, distance from roof of the pulp chamber to furcation = 4.66 I.06mm, distance from the buccal cusp tip to the furcation = 11.59 1.17mm, distance from the buccal cusp tip to the roof of the pulp chamber =6.93 0.64mm, height of the pulp chamber 2.87 0.99mm. The results of these measurements revealed that morphological measurements of maxillary first premolars in Indian population were similar to previous studies and roof of the pulp chamber coincided with CEJ in 96% of the specimens.

Keywords: Pulp chamber, Furcation, Cemento enamel junction

How to cite this article:
Venkateshbabu N, Velmurugan N, Roy A, Kandaswamy D. Evaluation of the pulp chamber morphological measurements in maxillary first premolar in Indian population - an in-vitro study. J Conserv Dent 2007;10:119-21

How to cite this URL:
Venkateshbabu N, Velmurugan N, Roy A, Kandaswamy D. Evaluation of the pulp chamber morphological measurements in maxillary first premolar in Indian population - an in-vitro study. J Conserv Dent [serial online] 2007 [cited 2020 Jan 18];10:119-21. Available from: http://www.jcd.org.in/text.asp?2007/10/4/119/43030

   Introduction Top


Knowledge about the basic root canal anatomy and its variation is essential in achieving a higher percentage of success in endodontics [1] . Many errors occur during access cavity preparation or locating the canal orifices. Access preparation is performed by a quantitative method involving the clinician's tactile perception and knowledge of dental anatomy [2] .

Perforation through the floor of the pulp chamber into the furcation was the most common reason for failure in root canal treatment. The outcome of perforation repair is not a highly predictable procedure [3] . Furcated bicuspid teeth as well as molars are both subject to this iatrogenic problem. In 2005, Deutsch and Musikant reported the mean distance between the cusp tip and the roof of the pulp chamber in maxillary premolars was 6.36 mm [3] . Oi et al used micro Computed tomography to reconstruct the three dimensional structure of pulp cavities of maxillary first premolar teeth. The measurements they made were of the volume ratios of the pulp chamber and diameter of the root canal orifices [4] .

Numerous studies have shown different trends in shape and number of root canals amongst different races of people [5] . However, the size of the pulp chambers across different races of people is not known and has not been reported earlier.

Hence the purpose of this study was to determine the pulp chamber morphological measurements and also to find out whether the CEJ coincides with the roof of the pulp chamber of maxillary first premolars in Indian population.


   Materials and Methods Top


One hundred human maxillary premolars collected from Indian population were used in this study. Teeth were stored in 10 % formalin. All attached calculus was removed using ultrasonic scaler. Teeth with caries, restoration, endodontic treatment and fractures were excluded from the study.

I. Morphological Measurement:

Each premolar tooth was radiographed using RVG imaging system. The teeth were placed over the sensor by a customized jig in a buccopalatal direction and radiographed using paralleling cone technique. Distance between the teeth and X- ray beam was standardized to 1 cm and followed for al I the teeth. By using grid option in RVG system, the imaged picture was morphologically measured. [Figure 1]. Five direct measures were made for all the teeth [Table 1]:

Measurement A represents the distance between the floor of the pulp chamber to closest point to furcation.

Measurement B represents the distance between the roof of the pulp chamber to closest point to furcation.

Measurement C represents the distance from the buccal cusp tip to the furcation

Measurement D represents the distance from the buccal cusp tip to the roof of the pulp chamber

Measurement E represents the height of the pulp chamber.

Percentage of variance (% variance) was calculated for all the measurements: standard deviation (SD) divided by mean.

II. The relationship of the Cemento enamel junction to the roof of the pulp chamber :

The distance between the cusp tip and CEJ was measured. Then the distance between cusp tip and to the roof of the pulp chamber was measured radiographically (E). Both the values were compared [Table 2]. The descriptive statistics has been done


   Results Top


The descriptive statistics of the measurements are shown in [Table 1]


   Discussion Top


A proper access cavity is the gateway for successful endodontic treatment. Errors like perforation occur while trying to locate the canals. Such errors can be avoided if the pulp chamber morphological measurements are understood.

According to Deutsch and Musikant [3] reported that, the distance from the midpoint of a line connecting the two cusp tips and closest point to furcation is 11.55mm, mean distance from the midpoint of a line connecting the two cusp tips and to the roof of the pulp chamber is 6.94mm, height of the pulp chamber is 2.76mm.

In our study done in Indian population, the distance from the buccal cusp tip to the furcation is 11.59mm, mean distance from the bucal cusp tip to the roof of the pulp chamber is 6.93mm, height of the pulp chamber is 2.87mm. The coefficient of variation (CV) was also calculated. If the access-opening burs go beyond 6 - 7 mm, the floor of the pulp chamber can be gauged or perforated.

Detusch and Musikant reported that roof of the pulp chamber coincides with the level of CEJ [3] . In our study 96% of the specimens, roof of the pulp chamber coincides with CEJ. While doing access opening, in cases were the teeth is attrited or the cusps are damaged, operator can make use of CEJ as a reliable indicator for depth of access opening.


   Conclusion Top


Morphological measurements of maxillary first premolars in Indian Population was

  1. distance from floor of the pulp chamber to furcation=1.790.8mm,
  2. distance from roof of the pulp chamber to furcation=4.66 1.06mm,
  3. distance from the buccal cusp tip to the furcation= 11.59 1.17mm,
  4. distance from the buccal cusp tip to the roof of the pulp chamber-- 6.930.64mm,
  5. height of the pulp chamber = 2.87 0.99


In maxillary first premolar the CEJ coincides in 96% of the specimens with the roof of the pulp chamber.

 
   References Top

1.Slowey RR. Root canal anatomy. Road map to successful endodontics. Dent Clin North Am 1979;23:555-573.  Back to cited text no. 1    
2.Christie WH, Thompson GK. The importance of endodontic access in locating maxillary and mandibular molar canals. J Can Dent Assoc, 60: 527-36,1994.  Back to cited text no. 2    
3.Allan S.Deutsch , Barry LeeMusikant Morphological Measurement of Anatomic Landmarks in pulp chambers of Human Maxillary and furcated Bicuspids. Jou of Endo, Vol 31,No 8. Pg 570-573;2005.  Back to cited text no. 3    
4.Oi T, Saka H, idle Y. Three dimensional observation of pulp cavities in maxillary premolar tooth using micro CT. Int Endod Jou 2004,34,46-51.  Back to cited text no. 4    
5.Melton DC, Krell KV, Fuller MW. Anatomical and histological features of C- shaped canals in mandibular second molars. Jou of Endo 17,pg 384-8,1991.  Back to cited text no. 5    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Nagendrababu Venkateshbabu
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Alapakkam Main Road, Maduravoyal, Chennai 600 095
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-0707.43030

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    Figures

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    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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    Abstract
    Introduction
    Materials and Me...
    Results
    Discussion
    Conclusion
    References
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