Journal of Conservative Dentistry
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INVITED REVIEW
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 108-113

Evaluation of the actual chlorine concentration and the required time for pulp dissolution using different sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions


1 Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy
2 Department of Clinical, Surgical, Diagnostic and Pediatric Sciences, Section of Dentistry, Endodontic Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
3 Ismail CAPAR, Private Practice, Istanbul, Turkey
4 Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Alfredo Iandolo
Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Naples
Italy
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JCD.JCD_165_19

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Introduction: The goal of root canal treatment is to shape and clean the endodontic space, reducing the bacterial load and removing the pulp tissue. Obviously, the action of the endodontic instruments is limited to the main canals, regardless of the complexity of the endodontic space. Consequently, finding the best possible cleaning technique, which can be obtained chemically using irrigation solutions, is a fundamental aid in endodontic therapy. One of the most commonly used root canal irrigants is sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), available in various commercial formulations. The effectiveness of NaOCl is undeniable. However, the action of dissolution of the pulp tissue is merely dependent on the concentration and the characteristics of the irrigant itself. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effective concentration of different commercial formulas of NaOCl, by evaluating the percentage of total chlorine in each product. The dissolution capacity of the pulp tissue of each of the tested products was then analyzed by measuring the required time. Materials and Methods: Three commercial types of NaOCl were selected for this study: 5% NaOCl (ACE, Procter and Gamble), 5% NaOCl (N5, Simit Dental), and 6% NaOCl (CanalPro, Coltene). For each product, 10 packages were used, from which samples of the product were taken and 30 ml × 5 ml tubes were filled. All samples were divided into three groups and were analyzed using the DIN EN ISO 7393-2 method and the percentage of total chlorine (expressed as a percentage) was calculated. Forty samples of vital pulp were obtained from teeth freshly extracted for periodontal reasons and stored in physiological solution. In order to unify the size and weight of the samples (0.0001 mg), a microtome and a precision balance (Pro Explorer Ohaus) were used. Each sample, carefully examined by stereomicroscope (×40), was placed in artificial plastic containers and submerged in 0.1 ml of irrigating solution at room temperature (26°C). A fourth control group used saline solution as irrigant. Simultaneously with the insertion of the irrigating solution, a digital stopwatch was activated and the time necessary for the complete dissolution of the pulp sample was measured. The data obtained was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The average percentages of chlorine detected for each group were: 4.26% (ACE), 5.16% (N5), and 5.97% (CanalPro). The Kruskal–Wallis test showed statistically significant differences between the different commercial formulations of hypochlorite (P < 0.05). CanalPro showed the lowest values, whereas ACE showed the highest values of dissolution time of the pulp. Discussion: The analysis of the total chlorine percentage found that the actual concentration of the NaOCl in the samples is close to the values declared by the manufacturers both in the case of N5 and CanalPro. On the contrary, the concentration detected in the samples of common bench bleach (ACE) is significantly lower, which has average values <5%. This explains the longer time taken for the complete dissolution of the pulp tissue. The average dissolution time of the pulp samples was in fact inversely proportional to the concentration detected in the tested irrigants and hence that a lower time corresponds to a higher concentration.


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